Dietary energy density: estimates, trends and dietary determinants for a nationally representative sample of the Irish population (aged 5-90 years)

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dc.contributor.author O'Connor, Laura
dc.contributor.author Walton, Janette
dc.contributor.author Flynn, Albert
dc.date.accessioned 2017-03-01T15:52:13Z
dc.date.available 2017-03-01T15:52:13Z
dc.date.issued 2014-11-17
dc.identifier.citation O'Connor, L., Walton, J. and Flynn, A. (2015) 'Dietary energy density: estimates, trends and dietary determinants for a nationally representative sample of the Irish population (aged 5–90 years)', British Journal of Nutrition, 113(1), pp. 172-180. doi:10.1017/S0007114514003420 en
dc.identifier.volume 113 en
dc.identifier.startpage 172 en
dc.identifier.endpage 180 en
dc.identifier.issn 0007-1145
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10468/3719
dc.identifier.doi 10.1017/S0007114514003420
dc.description.abstract Higher dietary energy density (DED) has been reported to be associated with weight gain, obesity and poorer dietary quality, yet nationally representative estimates that would allow tracking of secular trends and inter-country comparisons are limited. The aims of the present study were to calculate DED estimates for the Irish population and to identify dietary determinants of DED. Weighed/semi-weighed food records from three cross-sectional surveys (the National Children's Food Survey, the National Teens’ Food Survey and the National Adult Nutrition Survey) were collated to estimate habitual dietary intakes for a nationally representative sample of the Irish population, aged 5–90 years (n 2535). DED estimates, calculated using the total diet method, the food only method and a novel method, including foods and solids in beverages, were 3·70 (sd 1·09), 7·58 (sd 1·72) and 8·40 (sd 1·88) kJ/g, respectively. Determinants of DED did not vary by the calculation method used. Variation in the intakes of fruit, vegetables and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) across consumer groups contributed to the largest variance in DED estimates, followed by variation in the intakes of potatoes, fresh meat, bread, chips, ready-to-eat breakfast cereals, and confectionery. DED estimates were inversely associated with age group and consistently lower for females than for males. The inverse association of DED with age group was explained by higher intakes of vegetables, fruit, fish, potatoes, fresh meat and brown bread and lower intakes of SSB, chocolate confectionery, ready-to-eat breakfast cereals and savoury snacks in older age groups. Females consumed, on average, 1·5 times more fruit and vegetables combined when compared with males, largely explaining the sex differences in DED estimates. Current DED estimates for adults were similar to those calculated in a previous survey, carried out 10 years earlier. These estimates and determinants serve as a baseline for comparison for other works and public health campaigns. en
dc.description.sponsorship Irish Government under the National Development Plan (2000–6); Department of Agriculture, Fisheries & Food (Food for Health Research Initiative (2007–12)) en
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf en
dc.language.iso en en
dc.publisher Cambridge University Press en
dc.rights © The Authors 2014. Published by Cambridge University Press (CUP) on behalf of The Nutrition Society. en
dc.subject Energy density en
dc.subject Dietary determinants en
dc.subject Nationally representative estimates en
dc.subject Trends en
dc.subject Children en
dc.subject Adolescents en
dc.subject Adults en
dc.title Dietary energy density: estimates, trends and dietary determinants for a nationally representative sample of the Irish population (aged 5-90 years) en
dc.type Article (peer-reviewed) en
dc.internal.authorcontactother Janette Walton, Firm Programme, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland. +353-21-490-3000 Email: janette.walton@ucc.ie en
dc.internal.availability Full text available en
dc.date.updated 2017-03-01T15:45:05Z
dc.description.version Published Version en
dc.internal.rssid 279268318
dc.internal.wokid WOS:000347105000018
dc.contributor.funder Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine en
dc.description.status Peer reviewed en
dc.identifier.journaltitle British Journal of Nutrition en
dc.internal.copyrightchecked No !!CORA!! en
dc.internal.licenseacceptance Yes en
dc.internal.IRISemailaddress janette.walton@ucc.ie en
dc.internal.IRISemailaddress a.flynn@ucc.ie en


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