The impact of voluntary food fortification on micronutrient intakes and status in European countries: a review

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dc.contributor.author Hennessy, Áine
dc.contributor.author Walton, Janette
dc.contributor.author Flynn, Albert
dc.date.accessioned 2017-03-03T12:52:21Z
dc.date.available 2017-03-03T12:52:21Z
dc.date.issued 2013-09-11
dc.identifier.citation Hennessy, Á., Walton, J. and Flynn, A. (2013) 'The impact of voluntary food fortification on micronutrient intakes and status in European countries: a review', Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 72(4), pp. 433-440. doi:10.1017/S002966511300339X en
dc.identifier.volume 72 en
dc.identifier.issued 4 en
dc.identifier.startpage 433 en
dc.identifier.endpage 440 en
dc.identifier.issn 0029-6651
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10468/3742
dc.identifier.doi 10.1017/S002966511300339X
dc.description.abstract This review aims to assess the efficacy and safety of voluntary fortification as an option to address the occurrence of inadequate micronutrient intakes in population subgroups in Europe. Although legislation is harmonised across the European Union, fortification practices and patterns of consumption of fortified foods vary considerably between countries. While the proportion of children consuming fortified foods is greater than adults, the proportion of dietary energy obtained from fortified foods is generally low (<10% in Ireland, where fortified foods are widely consumed). There are a few systematic studies on the overall nutritional impact of voluntary fortification, but there are several studies on the impact of fortified ready-to-eat breakfast cereals. The available evidence indicates that voluntary fortification can reduce the risk of sub-optimal intakes of a range of micronutrients at a population level and can also improve status for selected micronutrients (e.g. folate, vitamin D and riboflavin) in children and adults. Although concerns have been raised regarding the potential of food fortification to lead to unacceptably high micronutrient intakes, particularly for those consuming higher amounts of fortified foods, data from national surveys on total micronutrient intakes (including fortified foods) in Europe show that small proportions of the population, particularly children, may exceed the upper intake level (UL) for some micronutrients. The risk of adverse effects occurring in these individuals exceeding the UL by modest amounts is low. In conclusion, voluntary fortification practices have been shown to improve intake and status of key micronutrients in European Union population groups and do not contribute appreciably to risk of adverse effects. en
dc.description.sponsorship Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland (Food for Health Research Initiative (2007–2012) en
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf en
dc.language.iso en en
dc.publisher Cambridge University Press en
dc.rights © The Authors 2013. Published by Cambridge University Press (CUP) on behalf of The Nutrition Society en
dc.subject Fortification en
dc.subject Micronutrients en
dc.subject Vitamins en
dc.subject Minerals en
dc.subject Micronutrient adequacy en
dc.title The impact of voluntary food fortification on micronutrient intakes and status in European countries: a review en
dc.type Article (peer-reviewed) en
dc.internal.authorcontactother Janette Walton, Firm Programme, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland. +353-21-490-3000 Email: janette.walton@ucc.ie en
dc.internal.availability Full text available en
dc.date.updated 2017-03-03T12:45:10Z
dc.description.version Published Version en
dc.internal.rssid 241502804
dc.contributor.funder Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine en
dc.description.status Peer reviewed en
dc.identifier.journaltitle Proceedings of The Nutrition Society en
dc.internal.copyrightchecked No !!CORA!! en
dc.internal.licenseacceptance Yes en
dc.internal.IRISemailaddress janette.walton@ucc.ie en
dc.internal.IRISemailaddress a.flynn@ucc.ie en


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