Estimating safe maximum levels of vitamins and minerals in fortified foods and food supplements.

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dc.contributor.author Flynn, Albert
dc.contributor.author Kehoe, Laura
dc.contributor.author Hennessy, Áine
dc.contributor.author Walton, Janette
dc.date.accessioned 2017-03-08T16:11:08Z
dc.date.available 2017-03-08T16:11:08Z
dc.date.issued 2016-08-08
dc.identifier.citation Flynn, A., Kehoe, L., Hennessy, Á. and Walton, J. (2016) 'Estimating safe maximum levels of vitamins and minerals in fortified foods and food supplements', European Journal of Nutrition, pp. 1-11. doi:10.1007/s00394-016-1288-8 en
dc.identifier.startpage 1 en
dc.identifier.endpage 11 en
dc.identifier.issn 1436-6215
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10468/3761
dc.identifier.doi 10.1007/s00394-016-1288-8
dc.description.abstract Purpose: To show how safe maximum levels (SML) of vitamins and minerals in fortified foods and supplements may be estimated in population subgroups. Methods: SML were estimated for adults and 7- to 10-year-old children for six nutrients (retinol, vitamins B6, D and E, folic acid, iron and calcium) using data on usual daily nutrient intakes from Irish national nutrition surveys. Results: SML of nutrients in supplements were lower for children than for adults, except for calcium and iron. Daily energy intake from fortified foods in high consumers (95th percentile) varied by nutrient from 138 to 342 kcal in adults and 40–309 kcal in children. SML (/100 kcal) of nutrients in fortified food were lower for children than adults for vitamins B6 and D, higher for vitamin E, with little difference for other nutrients. Including 25 % ‘overage’ for nutrients in fortified foods and supplements had little effect on SML. Nutritionally significant amounts of these nutrients can be added safely to supplements and fortified foods for these population subgroups. The estimated SML of nutrients in fortified foods and supplements may be considered safe for these population subgroups over the long term given the food composition and dietary patterns prevailing in the respective dietary surveys. Conclusions: This risk assessment approach shows how nutrient intake data may be used to estimate, for population subgroups, the SML for vitamins and minerals in both fortified foods and supplements, separately, each taking into account the intake from other dietary sources. en
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf en
dc.language.iso en en
dc.publisher Springer en
dc.rights © The Authors 2016. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. en
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ en
dc.subject Vitamins en
dc.subject Minerals en
dc.subject Safe maximum levels en
dc.subject Fortified foods en
dc.subject Supplements en
dc.subject Irish national nutrition surveys en
dc.title Estimating safe maximum levels of vitamins and minerals in fortified foods and food supplements. en
dc.type Article (peer-reviewed) en
dc.internal.authorcontactother Janette Walton, Firm Programme, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland. +353-21-490-3000 Email: janette.walton@ucc.ie en
dc.internal.availability Full text available en
dc.date.updated 2017-03-08T16:06:44Z
dc.description.version Published Version en
dc.internal.rssid 361645541
dc.internal.pmid 27503554
dc.contributor.funder Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine en
dc.description.status Peer reviewed en
dc.identifier.journaltitle European Journal of Nutrition en
dc.internal.copyrightchecked No !!CORA!! en
dc.internal.licenseacceptance Yes en
dc.internal.IRISemailaddress janette.walton@ucc.ie en
dc.internal.bibliocheck Published Online August 2016. Open AccessCheck for print publication and update article and citation as needed.


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© The Authors 2016. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as © The Authors 2016. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
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