Microbial succession and flavor production in the fermented dairy beverage kefir

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dc.contributor.author Walsh, Aaron M.
dc.contributor.author Crispie, Fiona
dc.contributor.author Kilcawley, Kieran N.
dc.contributor.author O'Sullivan, Orla
dc.contributor.author O'Sullivan, Maurice G.
dc.contributor.author Claesson, Marcus J.
dc.contributor.author Cotter, Paul D.
dc.date.accessioned 2017-03-30T11:45:11Z
dc.date.available 2017-03-30T11:45:11Z
dc.date.issued 2016-10-04
dc.identifier.citation Walsh, A. M., Crispie, F., Kilcawley, K., O’Sullivan, O., O’Sullivan, M. G., Claesson, M. J. and Cotter, P. D. (2016) 'Microbial succession and flavor production in the fermented dairy beverage kefir’, mSystems 1(5), e00052-16 (16pp). doi:10.1128/mSystems.00052-16 en
dc.identifier.volume 1 en
dc.identifier.issued 5 en
dc.identifier.startpage 1 en
dc.identifier.endpage 16 en
dc.identifier.issn 2379-5077
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10468/3850
dc.identifier.doi 10.1128/mSystems.00052-16
dc.description.abstract Kefir is a putatively health-promoting dairy beverage that is produced when a kefir grain, consisting of a consortium of microorganisms, is added to milk to initiate a natural fermentation. Here, a detailed analysis was carried out to determine how the microbial population, gene content, and flavor of three kefirs from distinct geographic locations change over the course of 24-h fermentations. Metagenomic sequencing revealed that Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens was the dominant bacterial species in kefir during early stages of fermentations but that Leuconostoc mesenteroides became more prevalent in later stages. This pattern is consistent with an observation that genes involved in aromatic amino acid biosynthesis were absent from L. kefiranofaciens but were present in L. mesenteroides. Additionally, these shifts in the microbial community structure, and associated pathways, corresponded to changes in the levels of volatile compounds. Specifically, Acetobacter spp. Correlated with acetic acid; Lactobacillus spp. correlated with carboxylic acids, esters and ketones; Leuconostoc spp. correlated with acetic acid and 2,3-butanedione; and Saccharomyces spp. correlated with esters. The correlation data suggest a causal relationship between microbial taxa and flavor that is supported by observations that addition of L. kefiranofaciens NCFB 2797 increased the levels of esters and ketones whereas addition of L. mesenteroides 213M0 increased the levels of acetic acid and 2,3-butanedione. Finally, we detected genes associated with probiotic functionalities in the kefir microbiome. Our results illustrate the dynamic nature of kefir fermentations and microbial succession patterns therein and can be applied to optimize the fermentation processes, flavors, and health-related attributes of this and other fermented foods. IMPORTANCE: Traditional fermented foods represent relatively low-complexity microbial environments that can be used as model microbial communities to understand how microbes interact in natural environments. Our results illustrate the dynamic nature of kefir fermentations and microbial succession patterns therein. In the process, the link between individual species, and associated pathways, with flavour compounds is revealed and several genes that could be responsible for the purported gut health-associated benefits of consuming kefir are identified. Ultimately, in addition to providing an important fundamental insight into microbial interactions, this information can be applied to optimize the fermentation processes, flavors, and health-related attributes of this and other fermented foods. en
dc.description.sponsorship Science Foundation Ireland (SFI/12/RC/2273; 11/PI/1137; 13/SIRG/2160) en
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf en
dc.language.iso en en
dc.publisher American Society for Microbiology en
dc.relation.uri http://msystems.asm.org/content/2/1/e00003-17
dc.rights © 2016, the Authors. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license. en
dc.rights.uri https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ en
dc.subject Dairy en
dc.subject Flavor en
dc.subject Kefir en
dc.subject Metagenomics en
dc.subject Microbiota en
dc.title Microbial succession and flavor production in the fermented dairy beverage kefir en
dc.type Article (peer-reviewed) en
dc.internal.authorcontactother Marcus Claesson, Microbiology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland. +353-21-490-3000 Email: m.claesson@ucc.ie en
dc.internal.availability Full text available en
dc.date.updated 2017-03-29T11:24:36Z
dc.description.version Published Version en
dc.internal.rssid 389145086
dc.contributor.funder Science Foundation Ireland en
dc.description.status Peer reviewed en
dc.identifier.journaltitle mSystems en
dc.internal.copyrightchecked Yes en
dc.internal.licenseacceptance Yes en
dc.internal.IRISemailaddress m.claesson@ucc.ie en
dc.identifier.articleid e00052-16


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© 2016, the Authors. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license. Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as © 2016, the Authors. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.
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