Towards the development of a novel zero-discharge willow wastewater treatment system

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dc.contributor.advisor Jones, Peter W. en
dc.contributor.advisor Whelan, Padraig en McAuliffe, Fergus 2017-06-20T11:18:03Z 2016 2016
dc.identifier.citation McAuliffe, F. 2016. Towards the development of a novel zero-discharge willow wastewater treatment system. PhD Thesis, University College Cork. en
dc.identifier.endpage 293 en
dc.description.abstract Onsite wastewater treatment systems play a vital role in the protection of surface waters, groundwater and drinking water supplies. In areas of low subsoil permeability, where traditional onsite systems are not appropriate, attention has turned to the use of zero-discharge willow wastewater treatment systems (ZDWS). In this thesis, field-scale, meso-scale and lab-scale experimental trials, in combination with field observational studies were carried out, towards the development of a novel ZDWS. Field studies on the use of a polytunnel-covered wetland system found that while evapotranspiration from covered willow systems decreased, the overall efficiency of wastewater removal increased, due to the prevention of incident rainfall from entering the wetland. The development of a novel, polytunnel-covered willowfree wetland system also showed promise, with evaporation rates approaching the evapotranspiration rates achieved by the wetlands containing willows. The use of a winter-active species, P. fragrans, to increase winter evapotranspiration was proposed and investigated. Trials found that, due to the inability of the species to tolerate short-duration waterlogging, the distribution of the species in free-draining soils and the low winter evapotranspiration, the use of P. fragrans in a zero-discharge system is not effective. In lysimeter trials, willows undergoing an annual coppicing system, necessary for a covered ZDWS, were found to have lower evapotranspiration rates than willows that were not coppiced. Soil clay percentage did not generally affect growth or evapotranspiration for trees undergoing the annual coppicing cycle. Willow crop factors, for use in the sizing of ZDWS in the south of Ireland, were established as part of this trial. Inoculation of the willow trees with a commercial mixed-species mycorrhizal fungal inoculum increased willow biomass growth. Furthermore, the development of a willow-selected mycorrhizal fungal inoculum led to increased willow shoot biomass and total leaf area compared to treatment with the commercial inoculum. Molecular analysis revealed a change in the relative proportions of the mycorrhizal species, with increased abundances of the disturbance-tolerant species Glomus mosseae and G. intraradices in the willowselected inoculum relative to the original commercial inoculum. Overall, despite some modifications and improvements to system efficiency, the achievement of true zero-discharge operation, combined with practical operation, remains difficult in the Irish setting. en
dc.description.sponsorship Irish Research Council (IRCSET EMBARK initiative) en
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf en
dc.language English en
dc.language.iso en en
dc.publisher University College Cork en
dc.rights © 2016, Fergus McAuliffe. en
dc.rights.uri en
dc.subject Salix en
dc.subject Willow en
dc.subject Wastewater en
dc.subject Zero-discharge en
dc.subject Evapotranspiration en
dc.subject Mycorrhizal fungi en
dc.title Towards the development of a novel zero-discharge willow wastewater treatment system en
dc.type Doctoral thesis en
dc.type.qualificationlevel Doctoral en
dc.type.qualificationname PhD (Science) en
dc.internal.availability Full text not available en Restricted to everyone for five years en 2022-06-19T11:18:03Z
dc.description.version Accepted Version
dc.contributor.funder Irish Research Council en
dc.description.status Not peer reviewed en Biological, Earth & Environmental Sciences en
dc.check.reason This thesis is due for publication or the author is actively seeking to publish this material en
dc.check.opt-out No en
dc.thesis.opt-out false
dc.check.entireThesis Entire Thesis Restricted
dc.check.embargoformat E-thesis on CORA only en
dc.internal.conferring Autumn 2016 en

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© 2016, Fergus McAuliffe. Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as © 2016, Fergus McAuliffe.
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