Non-skeletal health effects of vitamin D supplementation: a systematic review on findings from meta-analyses summarizing trial data

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dc.contributor.author Rejnmark, Lars
dc.contributor.author Bislev, Lise Sofie
dc.contributor.author Cashman, Kevin D.
dc.contributor.author Eiriksdottir, Gudny
dc.contributor.author Gaksch, Martin
dc.contributor.author Gruebler, Martin
dc.contributor.author Grimnes, Guri
dc.contributor.author Gudnason, Vilmundur
dc.contributor.author Lips, Paul
dc.contributor.author Pilz, Stefan
dc.contributor.author van Schoor, Natasja M.
dc.contributor.author Kiely, Mairead E.
dc.contributor.author Jorde, Rolf
dc.date.accessioned 2017-09-26T11:39:20Z
dc.date.available 2017-09-26T11:39:20Z
dc.date.issued 2017
dc.identifier.citation Rejnmark, L., Bislev, L. S., Cashman, K. D., Eiríksdottir, G., Gaksch, M., Grübler, M., Grimnes, G., Gudnason, V., Lips, P., Pilz, S., van Schoor, N. M., Kiely, M. and Jorde, R. (2017) 'Non-skeletal health effects of vitamin D supplementation: a systematic review on findings from meta-analyses summarizing trial data', PLOS ONE, 12(7), e0180512 (39pp). doi: en
dc.identifier.volume 12
dc.identifier.issued 7
dc.identifier.issn 1932-6203
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10468/4795
dc.identifier.doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0180512
dc.description.abstract Background A large number of observational studies have reported harmful effects of low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels on non-skeletal outcomes. We performed a systematic quantitative review on characteristics of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) included in meta-analyses (MAs) on non-skeletal effects of vitamin D supplementation. Methods and findings We identified systematic reviews (SR) reporting summary data in terms of MAs of RCTs on selected non-skeletal outcomes. For each outcome, we summarized the results from available SRs and scrutinized included RCTs for a number of predefined characteristics. We identified 54 SRs including data from 210 RCTs. Most MAs as well as the individual RCTs reported null-findings on risk of cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, weight-loss, and malignant diseases. Beneficial effects of vitamin D supplementation was reported in 1 of 4 MAs on depression, 2 of 9 MAs on blood pressure, 3 of 7 MAs on respiratory tract infections, and 8 of 12 MAs on mortality. Most RCTs have primarily been performed to determine skeletal outcomes, whereas non-skeletal effects have been assessed as secondary outcomes. Only one-third of the RCTs had low level of 25OHD as a criterion for inclusion and a mean baseline 25OHD level below 50 nmol/L was only present in less than half of the analyses. Conclusions Published RCTs have mostly been performed in populations without low 25OHD levels. The fact that most MAs on results from RCTs did not show a beneficial effect does not disprove the hypothesis suggested by observational findings on adverse health outcomes of low 25OHD levels. en
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf en
dc.language.iso en en
dc.publisher Public Library of Science en
dc.relation.uri http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0180512
dc.rights © 2017, Rejnmark et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. en
dc.rights.uri https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.subject Randomized controlled trials en
dc.subject Serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D en
dc.subject Placebo controlled trial en
dc.subject Nutrition examination survey en
dc.subject 3Rd national health en
dc.subject Respiratory tract infection en
dc.subject Smooth muscle cells en
dc.subject Impaired glucose tolerance en
dc.subject Parathyroid hormone levels en
dc.subject Controlled clinical trial en
dc.title Non-skeletal health effects of vitamin D supplementation: a systematic review on findings from meta-analyses summarizing trial data en
dc.type Article (peer-reviewed) en
dc.internal.authorcontactother Kevin D. Cashman, Food & Nutritional Sciences, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland. +353-21-490-3000 Email: k.cashman@ucc.ie en
dc.internal.availability Full text available en
dc.description.version Published Version en
dc.internal.wokid WOS:000405464100072
dc.contributor.funder Seventh Framework Programme
dc.description.status Peer reviewed en
dc.identifier.journaltitle PLoS ONE en
dc.internal.IRISemailaddress k.cashman@ucc.ie en
dc.identifier.articleid e0180512
dc.relation.project info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/EC/FP7::SP1::KBBE/613977/EU/Food-based solutions for Optimal vitamin D Nutrition and health through the life cycle/ODIN


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© 2017, Rejnmark et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as © 2017, Rejnmark et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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