Multi-objective hierarchical algorithms for restoring Wireless Sensor Network connectivity in known environments

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Truong, Thuy T.
Brown, Kenneth N.
Sreenan, Cormac J.
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A Wireless Sensor Network can become partitioned due to node failure, requiring the deployment of additional relay nodes in order to restore network connectivity. This introduces an optimisation problem involving a tradeoff between the number of additional nodes that are required and the costs of moving through the sensor field for the purpose of node placement. This tradeoff is application-dependent, influenced for example by the relative urgency of network restoration. We propose a family of algorithms based on hierarchical objectives including complete algorithms and heuristics which integrate network design with path planning, recognising the impact of obstacles on mobility and communication. We conduct an empirical evaluation of the algorithms on random connectivity and mobility graphs, showing their relative performance in terms of node and path costs, and assessing their execution speeds. Finally, we examine how the relative importance of the two objectives influences the choice of algorithm. In summary, the algorithms which prioritise the node cost tend to find graphs with fewer nodes, while the algorithm which prioritise the cost of moving find slightly larger solutions but with cheaper mobility costs. The heuristic algorithms are close to the optimal algorithms in node cost, and higher in mobility costs. For fast moving agents, the node algorithms are preferred for total restoration time, and for slow agents, the path algorithms are preferred.
Wireless Sensor Network , Node deployment , Connectivity repair
Truong, T. T., Brown, K. N. and Sreenan, C. J. (2015) 'Multi-objective hierarchical algorithms for restoring Wireless Sensor Network connectivity in known environments', Ad Hoc Networks, 33(Supplement C), pp. 190-208. doi: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2015.05.005