Lithographically defined, room temperature low threshold subwavelength red-emitting hybrid plasmonic lasers

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Liu, Ning
Gocalińska, Agnieszka M.
Justice, John
Gity, Farzan
Povey, Ian M.
McCarthy, Brendan
Pemble, Martyn E.
Pelucchi, Emanuele
Wei, Hong
Silien, Christophe
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Hybrid plasmonic lasers provide deep subwavelength optical confinement, strongly enhanced light–matter interaction and together with nanoscale footprint promise new applications in optical communication, biosensing, and photolithography. The subwavelength hybrid plasmonic lasers reported so far often use bottom-up grown nanowires, nanorods, and nanosquares, making it difficult to integrate these devices into industry-relevant high density plasmonic circuits. Here, we report the first experimental demonstration of AlGaInP based, red-emitting hybrid plasmonic lasers at room temperature using lithography based fabrication processes. Resonant cavities with deep subwavelength 2D and 3D mode confinement of λ2/56 and λ3/199, respectively, are demonstrated. A range of cavity geometries (waveguides, rings, squares, and disks) show very low lasing thresholds of 0.6–1.8 mJ/cm2 with wide gain bandwidth (610 nm-685 nm), which are attributed to the heterogeneous geometry of the gain material, the optimized etching technique, and the strong overlap of the gain material with the plasmonic modes. Most importantly, we establish the connection between mode confinements and enhanced absorption and stimulated emission, which plays critical roles in maintaining low lasing thresholds at extremely small hybrid plasmonic cavities. Our results pave the way for the further integration of dense arrays of hybrid plasmonic lasers with optical and electronic technology platforms.
AlGaInP heterostructures , Enhanced stimulated emission , Plasmonic lasers , Purcell effect , Top-down lithography
Liu, N., Gocalinska, A., Justice, J., Gity, F., Povey, I., McCarthy, B., Pemble, M., Pelucchi, E., Wei, H., Silien, C., Xu, H. and Corbett, B. (2016) 'Lithographically Defined, Room Temperature Low Threshold Subwavelength Red-Emitting Hybrid Plasmonic Lasers', Nano Letters, 16(12), pp. 7822-7828. doi: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b04017
© 2016 American Chemical Society. This document is the Accepted Manuscript version of a Published Work that appeared in final form in Nano Letters, copyright © American Chemical Society after peer review and technical editing by the publisher. To access the final edited and published work see