Predicting nucleation of isonicotinamide from the solvent - solute interactions of isonicotinamide in common organic solvents

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Lynch, Mark B.
Lawrence, Simon E.
Nolan, Michael
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The interactions of isonicotinamide (INA) with seven common solvents (acetic acid, acetonitrile, acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol) have been studied to examine solute – solvent effects on the nucleation of INA from these solvents. In a simple model of 1:1 solute – solvent interactions, the strongest INA – solvent interaction is with acetic acid (binding energy, ΔEbind = -64.05 kJ mol-1) and the weakest is with chloroform (ΔEbind = -24.85 kJ mol-1). This arises since acetic acid and INA form a hydrogen bonding motif containing two moderate strength N-H...O hydrogen bonds, while chloroform and INA have a single weak C-H...O hydrogen bond. Taking acetic acid, chloroform, and methanol, the solvents with strongest, weakest and intermediate strength INA – solvent binding energy, the solvation of INA was studied to compare to the 1:1 model. Acetic acid has the strongest binding energy (-872.24 kJ mol-1) and solvation energy (-341.20 kJ mol-1) with chloroform binding energy ( 517.72 kJ mol-1) and solvation energy ( 199.05 kJ mol-1). Methanol has intermediate binding energy ( 814.19 kJ mol-1) and solvation energies ( 320.81 kJ mol-1). These results further confirm the recent the findings which indicate that the key trends in solvent – solute interactions can be determined from a simple and efficient 1:1 dimer model and can be used to predict ease of nucleation with stronger binding energies correlating to slower, more difficult nucleation. A limit of this model is revealed by considering alcohol and acid solvents with longer alkyl chains.
Isonicotinamide (INA) , Nucleation , Solvent-solute interactions
Lynch, M. B., Lawrence, S. E. and Nolan, M. (2018) 'Predicting nucleation of isonicotinamide from the solvent – solute interactions of isonicotinamide in common organic solvents', The Journal of Physical Chemistry A. [In Press] DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpca.8b01342
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