Tryptophan metabolic profile in term and preterm breast milk: implications for health

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dc.contributor.author O'Rourke, Louise
dc.contributor.author Clarke, Gerard
dc.contributor.author Nolan, Aoife
dc.contributor.author Watkins, Claire
dc.contributor.author Dinan, Timothy G.
dc.contributor.author Stanton, Catherine
dc.contributor.author Ross, R. Paul
dc.contributor.author Ryan, Cornelius Anthony
dc.date.accessioned 2018-05-02T10:16:32Z
dc.date.available 2018-05-02T10:16:32Z
dc.date.issued 2018
dc.identifier.citation O'Rourke, L., Clarke, G., Nolan, A., Watkins, C., Dinan, T. G., Stanton, C., Ross, R. P. and Ryan, C. A. (2018) 'Tryptophan metabolic profile in term and preterm breast milk: implications for health', Journal of Nutritional Science, 7, e13 (9pp). doi: 10.1017/jns.2017.69 en
dc.identifier.volume 7
dc.identifier.startpage 1
dc.identifier.endpage 9
dc.identifier.issn 2048-6790
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10468/5973
dc.identifier.doi 10.1017/jns.2017.69
dc.description.abstract Breast milk is the only source of the essential amino acid tryptophan (TRP) in breast-fed infants. Low levels of TRP could have implications for infant neurodevelopment. The objectives of the present study were to compare the relationship of TRP and its neuroactive pathway metabolites kynurenine (Kyn) and kynurenic acid (KynA) in preterm and term expressed breast milk (EBM) in the first 14 d following birth, and the relationship of TRP metabolism to maternal stress and immune status. A total of twenty-four mothers were recruited from Cork University Maternity Hospital: twelve term (>38 weeks) and twelve preterm (<35 weeks). EBM samples were collected on days 7 and 14. Free TRP, Kyn and KynA were measured using HPLC, total TRP using MS, cytokines using the Meso Scale Discovery (MSD) assay system, and cortisol using a cortisol ELISA kit. Although total TRP was higher in preterm EBM in comparison with term EBM (P < 0·05), free TRP levels were lower (P < 0·05). Kyn, KynA and the Kyn:TRP ratio increased significantly in term EBM from day 7 to day 14 (P < 0·05), but not in preterm EBM. TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 were higher in day 7 preterm and term EBM in comparison with day 14. There were no significant differences between term and preterm EBM cortisol levels. Increased availability of total TRP, lower levels of free TRP and alterations in the temporal dynamics of TRP metabolism in preterm compared with term EBM, coupled with higher EBM inflammatory markers on day 7, may have implications for the neurological development of exclusively breast-fed preterm infants. en
dc.description.sponsorship Health Research Board (Summer Scholarship Programme, 2013) en
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf en
dc.language.iso en en
dc.publisher Cambridge University Press on behalf of the Nutrition Society en
dc.relation.uri https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/journal-of-nutritional-science/article/tryptophan-metabolic-profile-in-term-and-preterm-breast-milk-implications-for-health/143F1C0A2D2C83C91CA8AA4C9B250304
dc.rights © 2018, the Authors. This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. en
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.subject Human milk en
dc.subject Tryptophan en
dc.subject Kynurenine en
dc.subject Kynurenic acid en
dc.subject Cytokines en
dc.subject Cortisol en
dc.title Tryptophan metabolic profile in term and preterm breast milk: implications for health en
dc.type Article (peer-reviewed) en
dc.internal.authorcontactother Anthony Ryan, Paediatrics & Child Health, Department of Neonatology, Cork University Maternity Hospital Wilton, Cork. T: +353-21-4920525 E: tony.ryan@ucc.ie en
dc.internal.availability Full text available en
dc.description.version Published Version en
dc.contributor.funder Health Research Board
dc.contributor.funder Science Foundation Ireland
dc.contributor.funder Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine
dc.description.status Peer reviewed en
dc.identifier.journaltitle Journal of Nutritional Science en
dc.internal.IRISemailaddress tony.ryan@ucc.ie en
dc.identifier.articleid e13
dc.relation.project info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/SFI/SFI Research Centres/12/RC/2273/IE/Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre (APC) - Interfacing Food & Medicine/


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© 2018, the Authors. This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as © 2018, the Authors. This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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