History - Book chapters

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    Ireland’s post-war humanitarian aid to Europe, 1945-1950: Catholic networking, remembrance and missionary tradition in action
    (Peter Lang, 2022-12) aan de Wiel, Jérôme; Maclennan, Alexandra
    This chapter explores Catholic Ireland’s aid to devastated post- war Europe between 1945 and 1950, an event quasi unknown in Ireland or continental Europe today. And yet, masses of unearthed archives show that Irish humanitarian aid extended from Normandy all the way to the streets of Tirana and the Greek islands. The memory of the Great Irish Famine of 1845 (the 100th anniversary was in 1945) played a role in the country’s collective response to the post- war catastrophe. The chapter throws light on the efforts of the Irish Catholic Church in organizing relief operations, using a transnational Catholic network in Europe and the United States. Relations between the Irish government and the Vatican are explored, notably concerning the government’s cooperation with the International Red Cross located in Protestant Geneva. There was relief competition between denominations in post- war Europe as some countries wished to return to their Christian roots after the horrors of Nazism and Fascism and were also now facing the Soviet atheistic threat in the emerging Cold War. Some continental clergymen believed that Ireland’s humanitarian aid was a reflection of its missionary efforts in past centuries.
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    Ireland: Frank Aiken's early steps to contain nuclear proliferation
    (Routledge, 2023-11-03) O'Driscoll, Mervyn
    This chapter underscores the centrality of Frank Aiken, the Irish minister for external affairs, in laying the groundwork for contemporary conceptions of nonproliferation as a threat to international stability and order. Aiken emerged as the driving force in manufacturing universal support for nonproliferation at the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) from 1958 to 1961. The chapter establishes how Irish identity and neutrality acted as diplomatic assets in the Irish team’s labors. The Irish resolutions were just one part of Aiken’s and Ireland’s wider efforts to relieve Cold War tensions and point global politics toward cooperative behaviors and solutions. They also converged with UN Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjold’s vision for the UN and fitted into the pattern of ‘middle powers’ playing bridgebuilding and mediation roles. Ironically, the primary challenge that Aiken encountered was to convince those with which Ireland had ideological affinity—namely, the United States and NATO—that nonproliferation was in their best interests. After the attainment of the landmark UNGA Resolution 1665 (XIV) in 1961, the Irishman adopted a pragmatic line—that the resolution provided the basic framework for a global pact, but the nuclear powers, notably the United States and the USSR, were best positioned to negotiate it and cajole allies, associates, and the nonaligned.
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    Atomized solidarity and new shapes of resistance: Visual activism in South Africa after apartheid
    (Routledge, 2022-12-30) Thomas, Kylie; NIOD Institute for War, Holocaust and Genocide Studies, Netherlands
    This chapter provides a concise history of visual activism in South Africa and focuses on how contemporary artists and activists make use of visual forms to intervene in public space, to document injustice, and to express dissent. The chapter argues that visual activism is best understood as a call to those who look to move from seeing and knowing to acting. Through analyses of works by visual activists Zanele Muholi, Haroon Gunn-Salie, and the Tokolos Stencils Collective, and through engaging with a campaign created by the social justice movement Section27, the essay shows how such work draws attention to homophobia and sexual violence; impunity for crimes against humanity; and ongoing inequality in the aftermath of apartheid. The essay also considers what occurs when visual activist works are detached from collective mobilizing and circulate within the neo-liberal art economy, producing forms of atomized solidarity.
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    Visions of a Habsburg Mediterranean in the Reign of Charles V
    (Austrian Academy of Sciences, 2021-10-07) Bond, Katherine; Hanß, Stefan; McEwan, Dorothea
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    Impossible allies? Soviet Views of France and the German question in the 1950s
    (Berghahn Books, 2019) Roberts, Geoffrey; Bozo, Frédéric; Wenkel, Christian