Impacts of droughts and extreme-temperature events on gross primary production and ecosystem respiration: a systematic assessment across ecosystems and climate zones

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dc.contributor.author von Buttlar, Jannis
dc.contributor.author Zscheischler, Jakob
dc.contributor.author Rammig, Anja
dc.contributor.author Sippel, Sebastian
dc.contributor.author Reichstein, Markus
dc.contributor.author Knohl, Alexander
dc.contributor.author Jung, Martin
dc.contributor.author Menzer, Olaf
dc.contributor.author Arain, Altaf
dc.contributor.author Buchmann, Nina
dc.contributor.author Cescatti, Alessandro
dc.contributor.author Gianelle, Damiano
dc.contributor.author Kiely, Gerard
dc.contributor.author Law, Beverly E.
dc.contributor.author Magliulo, Vincenzo
dc.contributor.author Margolis, Hank
dc.contributor.author McCaughey, Harry
dc.contributor.author Merbold, Lutz
dc.contributor.author Migliavacca, Mirco
dc.contributor.author Montagnani, Leonardo
dc.contributor.author Oechel, Walter
dc.contributor.author Pavelka, Marian
dc.contributor.author Peichl, Matthias
dc.contributor.author Rambal, Serge
dc.contributor.author Raschi, Antonio
dc.contributor.author Scott, Russell L.
dc.contributor.author Vaccari, Francesco P.
dc.contributor.author van Gorsel, Eva
dc.contributor.author Varlagin, Andrej
dc.contributor.author Wohlfahrt, Georg
dc.contributor.author Mahecha, Miguel D.
dc.date.accessioned 2018-06-15T11:47:09Z
dc.date.available 2018-06-15T11:47:09Z
dc.date.issued 2018
dc.identifier.citation von Buttlar, J., Zscheischler, J., Rammig, A., Sippel, S., Reichstein, M., Knohl, A., Jung, M., Menzer, O., Arain, M. A. and Buchmann, N. (2018) 'Impacts of droughts and extreme-temperature events on gross primary production and ecosystem respiration: a systematic assessment across ecosystems and climate zones', Biogeosciences, 15, pp. 1293-1318. doi: 10.5194/bg-15-1293-2018 en
dc.identifier.volume 15
dc.identifier.issued 5
dc.identifier.startpage 1293
dc.identifier.endpage 1318
dc.identifier.issn 1726-4170
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10468/6321
dc.identifier.doi 10.5194/bg-15-1293-2018
dc.description.abstract Extreme climatic events, such as droughts and heat stress, induce anomalies in ecosystem-atmosphere CO2 fluxes, such as gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (R-eco), and, hence, can change the net ecosystem carbon balance. However, despite our increasing understanding of the underlying mechanisms, the magnitudes of the impacts of different types of extremes on GPP and Reco within and between ecosystems remain poorly predicted. Here we aim to identify the major factors controlling the amplitude of extreme-event impacts on GPP, Reco, and the resulting net ecosystem production (NEP). We focus on the impacts of heat and drought and their combination. We identified hydrometeorological extreme events in consistently downscaled water availability and temperature measurements over a 30-year time period. We then used FLUXNET eddy covariance flux measurements to estimate the CO2 flux anomalies during these extreme events across dominant vegetation types and climate zones. Overall, our results indicate that short-term heat extremes increased respiration more strongly than they downregulated GPP, resulting in a moderate reduction in the ecosystem's carbon sink potential. In the absence of heat stress, droughts tended to have smaller and similarly dampening effects on both GPP and Reco and, hence, often resulted in neutral NEP responses. The combination of drought and heat typically led to a strong decrease in GPP, whereas heat and drought impacts on respiration partially offset each other. Taken together, compound heat and drought events led to the strongest C sink reduction compared to any single-factor extreme. A key insight of this paper, however, is that duration matters most: for heat stress during droughts, the magnitude of impacts systematically increased with duration, whereas under heat stress without drought, the response of Reco over time turned from an initial increase to a downregulation after about 2 weeks. This confirms earlier theories that not only the magnitude but also the duration of an extreme event determines its impact. Our study corroborates the results of several local site-level case studies but as a novelty generalizes these findings on the global scale. Specifically, we find that the different response functions of the two antipodal land-atmosphere fluxes GPP and Reco can also result in increasing NEP during certain extreme conditions. Apparently counterintuitive findings of this kind bear great potential for scrutinizing the mechanisms implemented in state-of-the-art terrestrial biosphere models and provide a benchmark for future model development and testing. en
dc.description.sponsorship Sixth Framework Programme (CarboEuropeIP); Future Earth (Food and Agriculture Organization-Global Terrestrial Observing System-Terrestrial and Atmospheric Carbon Observation) en
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf en
dc.language.iso en en
dc.publisher Copernicus Publications on behalf of European Geosciences Union en
dc.relation.uri https://www.biogeosciences.net/15/1293/2018/
dc.rights © 2018, Authors. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. en
dc.rights.uri https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.subject Carbon-dioxide exchange en
dc.subject Organic-matter decomposition en
dc.subject Net primary production en
dc.subject Water-vapor exchange en
dc.subject Boreal aspen forest en
dc.subject Canopy gas-exchange en
dc.subject Sub-alpine forest en
dc.subject Soil CO2 efflux en
dc.subject Interannual variation en
dc.subject Ponderosa pine en
dc.title Impacts of droughts and extreme-temperature events on gross primary production and ecosystem respiration: a systematic assessment across ecosystems and climate zones en
dc.type Article (peer-reviewed) en
dc.internal.authorcontactother Gerard Kiely, Civil Engineering, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland. +353-21-490-3000 Email: g.kiely@ucc.ie en
dc.internal.availability Full text available en
dc.description.version Published Version en
dc.contributor.funder Horizon 2020 Framework Programme
dc.contributor.funder Canadian Foundation for Climate and Atmospheric Sciences
dc.contributor.funder Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada
dc.contributor.funder BIOCAP Canada
dc.contributor.funder Environment Canada
dc.contributor.funder Natural Resources Canada
dc.contributor.funder Sixth Framework Programme
dc.contributor.funder United Nations
dc.contributor.funder Max-Planck-Institut für Biogeochemie
dc.contributor.funder National Science Foundation
dc.contributor.funder Tuscia University
dc.contributor.funder Université Laval
dc.contributor.funder U.S. Department of Energy
dc.contributor.funder Future Earth
dc.description.status Peer reviewed
dc.identifier.journaltitle Biogeosciences en
dc.internal.IRISemailaddress g.kiely@ucc.ie en
dc.relation.project info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/EC/H2020::RIA/640176/EU/Detecting changes in essential ecosystem and biodiversity properties – towards a Biosphere Atmosphere Change Index: BACI/BACI


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© 2018, Authors. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as © 2018, Authors. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
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