The microbiome of professional athletes differs from that of more sedentary subjects in composition and particularly at the functional metabolic level

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dc.contributor.author Barton, Wiley
dc.contributor.author Penney, Nicholas C.
dc.contributor.author Cronin, Owen
dc.contributor.author Garcia-Perez, Isabel
dc.contributor.author Molloy, Michael G.
dc.contributor.author Holmes, Elaine
dc.contributor.author Shanahan, Fergus
dc.contributor.author Cotter, Paul D.
dc.contributor.author O'Sullivan, Orla
dc.date.accessioned 2018-07-30T10:30:27Z
dc.date.available 2018-07-30T10:30:27Z
dc.date.issued 2018
dc.identifier.citation Barton, W., Penney, N. C., Cronin, O., Garcia-Perez, I., Molloy, M. G., Holmes, E., Shanahan, F., Cotter, P. D. and O'Sullivan, O. (2018) 'The microbiome of professional athletes differs from that of more sedentary subjects in composition and particularly at the functional metabolic level', Gut, 67(4), pp. 625-633. doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2016-313627 en
dc.identifier.volume 67
dc.identifier.issued 4
dc.identifier.startpage 625
dc.identifier.endpage 633
dc.identifier.issn 0017-5749
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10468/6514
dc.identifier.doi 10.1136/gutjnl-2016-313627
dc.description.abstract Objective: It is evident that the gut microbiota and factors that influence its composition and activity effect human metabolic, immunological and developmental processes. We previously reported that extreme physical activity with associated dietary adaptations, such as that pursued by professional athletes, is associated with changes in faecal microbial diversity and composition relative to that of individuals with a more sedentary lifestyle. Here we address the impact of these factors on the functionality/metabolic activity of the microbiota which reveals even greater separation between exercise and a more sedentary state. Design: Metabolic phenotyping and functional metagenomic analysis of the gut microbiome of professional international rugby union players (n=40) and controls (n=46) was carried out and results were correlated with lifestyle parameters and clinical measurements (eg, dietary habit and serum creatine kinase, respectively). Results Athletes had relative increases in pathways (eg, amino acid and antibiotic biosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism) and faecal metabolites (eg, microbial produced short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) acetate, propionate and butyrate) associated with enhanced muscle turnover (fitness) and overall health when compared with control groups. Conclusions: Differences in faecal microbiota between athletes and sedentary controls show even greater separation at the metagenomic and metabolomic than at compositional levels and provide added insight into the diet-exercise-gut microbiota paradigm. en
dc.description.sponsorship Diabetes Research and Wellness Foundation (Sutherland-Earl Clinical Research Fellowship); National Institute for Health Research/Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust (Biomedical Research Centre) en
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf en
dc.language.iso en en
dc.publisher BMJ Publishing Group en
dc.relation.uri http://gut.bmj.com/content/67/4/625
dc.rights © 2017, BMJ Publishing Group. All rights reserved. This article has been accepted for publication in Gut following peer review. The definitive copyedited, typeset version is available online at: https://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2016-313627 en
dc.rights.uri http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
dc.subject Chain fatty-acids en
dc.subject Trimethylamine-N-oxide en
dc.subject Physical activity en
dc.subject Gut microbiome en
dc.subject Cardiovascular disease en
dc.subject Mass spectrometry en
dc.subject Metaanalysis en
dc.subject Association en
dc.subject Diversity en
dc.subject Exercise en
dc.title The microbiome of professional athletes differs from that of more sedentary subjects in composition and particularly at the functional metabolic level en
dc.type Article (peer-reviewed) en
dc.internal.authorcontactother Fergus Shanahan, Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland. +353-21-490-1226 Email: f.shanahan@ucc.ie en
dc.internal.availability Full text available en
dc.description.version Accepted Version en
dc.contributor.funder Science Foundation Ireland
dc.contributor.funder Diabetes Research & Wellness Foundation
dc.contributor.funder National Institute for Health Research
dc.contributor.funder Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust
dc.contributor.funder Imperial College London
dc.description.status Peer reviewed en
dc.identifier.journaltitle Gut en
dc.internal.IRISemailaddress f.shanahan@ucc.ie en
dc.relation.project info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/SFI/SFI Starting Investigator Research Grant (SIRG)/13/SIRG/2160/IE/Investigating the impact of high intensity exercise and/or protein intake levels on gut microbial diversity./
dc.relation.project info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/SFI/SFI Research Centres/12/RC/2273/IE/Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre (APC) - Interfacing Food & Medicine/


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