Lack of acute or chronic effects of epicatechin-rich and procyanidin-rich apple extracts on blood pressure and cardiometabolic biomarkers in adults with moderately elevated blood pressure: a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial

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dc.contributor.author Hollands, Wendy J.
dc.contributor.author Tapp, Henri
dc.contributor.author Defernez, Marianne
dc.contributor.author Perez Moral, Natalia
dc.contributor.author Winterbone, Mark S.
dc.contributor.author Philo, Mark
dc.contributor.author Lucey, Alice J.
dc.contributor.author Kiely, Mairead E.
dc.contributor.author Kroon, Paul A.
dc.date.accessioned 2018-12-17T11:58:05Z
dc.date.available 2018-12-17T11:58:05Z
dc.date.issued 2018-11-23
dc.identifier.citation Hollands, W. J., Tapp, H., Defernez, M., Perez Moral, N., Winterbone, M. S., Philo, M., Lucey, A. J., Kiely, M. E. and Kroon, P. A. (2018) 'Lack of acute or chronic effects of epicatechin-rich and procyanidin-rich apple extracts on blood pressure and cardiometabolic biomarkers in adults with moderately elevated blood pressure: a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial', American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 108(5), pp. 1006-1014. doi:10.1093/ajcn/nqy139 en
dc.identifier.volume 108 en
dc.identifier.issued 5 en
dc.identifier.startpage 1006 en
dc.identifier.endpage 1014 en
dc.identifier.issn 0002-9165
dc.identifier.issn 1938-3207
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10468/7229
dc.identifier.doi 10.1093/ajcn/nqy139
dc.description.abstract Background: The reported effects of flavanol-rich foods such as cocoa, dark chocolate, and apples on blood pressure and endothelial function may be due to the monomeric flavanols [mainly (–)-epicatechin (EC)], the oligomeric flavanols [procyanidins (PCs)], or other components. Reports of well-controlled intervention studies that test the effects of isolated oligomeric flavanols on biomarkers of cardiovascular health are lacking. Objective: We studied the acute and chronic effects of an EC-rich apple flavanol extract and isolated apple PCs on systolic blood pressure (BP) and other cardiometabolic biomarkers. Design: Forty-two healthy men and women with moderately elevated BP completed this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 4-arm crossover trial. Participants ingested a single dose of an apple flavanol extract (70 mg monomeric flavanols, 65 mg PCs), a double dose of this extract (140 mg monomeric flavanols, 130 mg PCs), an apple PC extract (130 mg PCs, 6.5 mg monomeric flavanols), or placebo capsules once daily for 4 wk, in random order. Biomarkers of cardiovascular disease risk and vascular function were measured before and 2 h after ingestion of the first dose and after the 4-wk intervention. Results: Compared with placebo, none of the isolated flavanol treatments significantly (P < 0.05) changed systolic or diastolic BP (peripheral and aortic), plasma nitric oxide (NO) reaction products, or measures of arterial stiffness (carotid femoral pulse-wave velocity, brachial-ankle pulse-wave velocity, or Augmentation Index) after 2 h or 4 wk of the intervention. There were no changes in plasma endogenous metabolite profiles or circulating NO; endothelin 1; total, HDL, or LDL cholesterol; triglycerides; fasting glucose; fructosamine; or insulin after 4 wk of the intervention. Conclusions: Our data suggest that, in isolation, neither monomeric flavanols nor PCs affect BP, blood lipid profiles, endothelial function, or glucose control in individuals with moderately elevated BP. The reported benefits of consuming flavanol-rich cocoa, chocolate, and apple products appear to be dependent on other components, which may work in combination with monomeric flavanols and PCs. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02013856. en
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf en
dc.language.iso en en
dc.publisher Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Society for Nutrition en
dc.relation.uri www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02013856.
dc.rights © 2018, American Society for Nutrition. This is a pre-copyedited, author-produced version of an article accepted for publication in American Journal of Clinical Nutrition following peer review. The version of record is available online at: https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy139 en
dc.subject Cardiovascular disease en
dc.subject Polyphenols en
dc.subject Flavonoids en
dc.subject Pulse-wave velocity en
dc.subject Metabolite profiling en
dc.subject Endogenous metabolism en
dc.subject Lipid metabolism en
dc.title Lack of acute or chronic effects of epicatechin-rich and procyanidin-rich apple extracts on blood pressure and cardiometabolic biomarkers in adults with moderately elevated blood pressure: a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial en
dc.type Article (peer-reviewed) en
dc.internal.authorcontactother Alice Lucey, Dept Of Food & Nutritional Sciences, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland. +353-21-490-3000 Email: a.lucey@ucc.ie en
dc.internal.availability Full text available en
dc.check.info Access to this article is restricted until 12 months after publication by request of the publisher. en
dc.check.date 2019-11-23
dc.date.updated 2018-12-17T11:46:52Z
dc.description.version Accepted Version en
dc.internal.rssid 465912013
dc.description.status Peer reviewed en
dc.identifier.journaltitle American Journal of Clinical Nutrition en
dc.internal.copyrightchecked Yes en
dc.internal.licenseacceptance Yes en
dc.internal.IRISemailaddress A.Lucey@ucc.ie en


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