Cross-cultural color-odor associations

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dc.contributor.author Levitan, Carmel A.
dc.contributor.author Ren, Jiana
dc.contributor.author Woods, Andy T.
dc.contributor.author Boesveldt, Sanne
dc.contributor.author Chan, Jason S.
dc.contributor.author McKenzie, Kirsten J.
dc.contributor.author Dodson, Michael
dc.contributor.author Levin, Jai
dc.contributor.author Leong, Christine X. R.
dc.contributor.author Van den Bosch, Jasper J. F.
dc.date.accessioned 2019-02-14T11:22:53Z
dc.date.available 2019-02-14T11:22:53Z
dc.date.issued 2014-07-09
dc.identifier.citation Levitan, C. A., Ren, J., Woods, A. T., Boesveldt, S., Chan, J. S., McKenzie, K. J., Dodson, M., Levin, J. A., Leong, C. X. R. and van den Bosch, J. J. F. (2014) 'Cross-Cultural Color-Odor Associations', PLOS ONE, 9 (7), e101651 (8pp). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0101651 en
dc.identifier.volume 9 en
dc.identifier.startpage e101651- 1 en
dc.identifier.endpage e101651- 8 en
dc.identifier.issn 1932-6203
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10468/7495
dc.identifier.doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0101651
dc.description.abstract Colors and odors are associated; for instance, people typically match the smell of strawberries to the color pink or red. These associations are forms of crossmodal correspondences. Recently, there has been discussion about the extent to which these correspondences arise for structural reasons (i.e., an inherent mapping between color and odor), statistical reasons (i.e., covariance in experience), and/or semantically-mediated reasons (i.e., stemming from language). The present study probed this question by testing color-odor correspondences in 6 different cultural groups (Dutch, Netherlands-residing-Chinese, German, Malay, Malaysian-Chinese, and US residents), using the same set of 14 odors and asking participants to make congruent and incongruent color choices for each odor. We found consistent patterns in color choices for each odor within each culture, showing that participants were making non-random color-odor matches. We used representational dissimilarity analysis to probe for variations in the patterns of color-odor associations across cultures; we found that US and German participants had the most similar patterns of associations, followed by German and Malay participants. The largest group differences were between Malay and Netherlands-resident Chinese participants and between Dutch and Malaysian-Chinese participants. We conclude that culture plays a role in color-odor crossmodal associations, which likely arise, at least in part, through experience. en
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf en
dc.language.iso en en
dc.publisher Public Library of Science, PLoS en
dc.relation.uri https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0101651
dc.rights © 2014 Levitan et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. en
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ en
dc.subject Malay people en
dc.subject Cross-cultural studies en
dc.subject Culture en
dc.subject Language en
dc.subject Odorants en
dc.subject Color vision en
dc.subject Smell en
dc.subject Sensory perception en
dc.title Cross-cultural color-odor associations en
dc.type Article (peer-reviewed) en
dc.internal.authorcontactother Jason Chan, Applied Psychology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland. +353-21-490-3000 Email: jason.chan@ucc.ie en
dc.internal.availability Full text available en
dc.date.updated 2019-02-14T11:15:22Z
dc.description.version Published Version en
dc.internal.rssid 298020115
dc.description.status Peer reviewed en
dc.identifier.journaltitle Plos One en
dc.internal.copyrightchecked No !!CORA!! en
dc.internal.licenseacceptance Yes en
dc.internal.IRISemailaddress jason.chan@ucc.ie en


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© 2014 Levitan et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as © 2014 Levitan et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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