Economics - Journal Articles

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    Broadcasting demand for Formula One: Viewer preferences for outcome uncertainty in the United States
    (Routledge, 2023-07-17) Fahy, Ronan; Butler, David; Butler, Robert
    We explore the determinants of broadcasting demand for Formula One racing in the United States of America and pay specific attention to the relationship between outcome uncertainty and television viewership figures. Using implied probabilities derived from betting odds, we offer an approach to measuring outcome uncertainty that differs from those currently established in the Formula One broadcasting demand literature. We do not find any evidence to support the uncertainty of outcome hypothesis. On the contrary, viewers display a preference for less closely contested races. We find that scheduling and accessibility to live races are important determinants of viewership. Our results have practical implications and can guide the sport's administrators and television broadcasters seeking to understand a growing national market for F1 broadcasting.
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    A multilevel approach to firm interrelationships across European regions
    (Taylor & Francis Group, 2023-06-27) O’Leary, Daragh; Doran, Justin; Power, Bernadette; Irish Research Council
    Policymakers attempt to foster entrepreneurship within European regions yet firm interrelationships across European regions remain understudied. This paper analyses the extent to which past firm births and deaths influence future firm births and deaths across European NUTS 2 regions through the lens of competition, multiplier and Marshall effects. Using a novel multilevel mixed effects regression model, we find evidence for an immediate multiplier effect changing to a competition effect as time passes across European regions and countries. We also identify that significant variations in firm birth and death rates exist across European regions validating the importance of more decentralized regional entrepreneurial policies which has implications for policies like the European Regional Development Fund’s (ERDF) Cohesion Plan and the Smart Specialization Strategy.
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    Ghost games and ex-post viewing preferences for the English Premier League: Evidence from YouTube highlights
    (Elsevier B.V., 2023-05-01) Butler, David; Butler, Robert
    We ask if the move to play elite football (soccer) matches without spectators during the COVID-19 pandemic impacted online viewership. Using a new dataset from YouTube, we depart from the traditional ex ante approach to modelling football demand and investigate streaming preferences for known results in football. Our data is collected in real-time and considers English Premier League matches from 2019 to 2021 played both in front of crowds and behind closed doors. The results indicate increased viewership for matches played without crowds. The findings also allow a deeper understanding of direct demand for football as we identify motivators, including different pre-game and in-game characteristics as well as scheduling effects, that make fans curious to view content after the fact. The research adds to our understanding of the effects of the pandemic on fan viewer behaviour and speaks to broadcasting firms developing digital extension strategies.
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    Organising for Innovation in Professional Services Firms: Econometric evidence from the UK
    (World Scientific Publishing, 2021-10-15) Bourke, Jane; Roper, Stephen; Love, James H.
    Undertaking innovation involves a range of different activities from ideation to the commercialisation of innovations. Each activity may have very different resources and organisational requirements, however, most prior studies treat innovation as a single un-differentiated activity. Here, using new survey data for professional service firms (PSFs) in the UK, we are able to examine separately how a range of organisational work practices influence success in ideation and commercialisation. In particular, we use principal component analysis (PCA) to identify and compare the benefits of four groups of organisational work practices relating to strategy & information sharing, recruitment & training, work flexibility & discretion and culture & leadership. Strong contrasts emerge between those work practices that are important for success in ideation and commercialisation. Work practices linked to culture & leadership are important for ideation activities, while strategy & information sharing practices are more strongly associated with commercialisation success. The results suggest clear managerial implications depending on the priority.
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    Lifting the hood of supply and demand for trademarks of start-ups: Partial observability estimates
    (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2022-08-03) Power, Bernadette; Reid, Gavin C.
    This paper estimates simultaneously the supply and the demand determinants of the trademark adoption decision made by start-ups. We use a partial observability econometric model, as non-adoption is unobserved. Estimation is by maximum likelihood using the partial observability bivariate probit (POBP) model for an unbalanced longitudinal panel of surviving US start-ups (2004 - 2011). Our model is shown to provide a good explanation of supply and demand determinants of trademark adoption. For example, size, incorporation and expenditure on R&D are important on the supply side; and copyrights, licensing out and being in a high knowledge information sector are important on the demand side.