Monolayer doping of silicon-germanium alloys: a balancing act between phosphorus incorporation and strain relaxation

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Kennedy, Noel
Duffy, Ray
Mirabelli, Gioele
Eaton, Luke
Petkov, Nikolay
Holmes, Justin D.
Hatem, Chris
Walsh, Lee
Long, Brenda
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This paper presents the application of monolayer doping (MLD) to silicon-germanium (SiGe). This study was carried out for phosphorus dopants on wafers of epitaxially grown thin films of strained SiGe on silicon with varying concentrations of Ge (18%, 30%, and 60%). The challenge presented here is achieving dopant incorporation while minimizing strain relaxation. The impact of high temperature annealing on the formation of defects due to strain relaxation of these layers was qualitatively monitored by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy prior to choosing an anneal temperature for the MLD drive-in. Though the bulk SiGe wafers provided are stated to have 18%, 30%, and 60% Ge in the epitaxial SiGe layers, it does not necessarily mean that the surface stoichiometry is the same, and this may impact the reaction conditions. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and angle-resolved XPS were carried out to compare the bulk and surface stoichiometry of SiGe to allow tailoring of the reaction conditions for chemical functionalization. Finally, dopant profiling was carried out by secondary ion mass spectrometry to determine the impurity concentrations achieved by MLD. It is evident from the results that phosphorus incorporation decreases for increasing mole fraction of Ge, when the rapid thermal annealing temperature is a fixed amount below the melting temperature of each alloy.
Si-Ge alloys , Atomic force microscopy , High resolution transmission electron microscopy , Monolayers , Phosphorus , Rapid thermal annealing , Secondary ion mass spectrometry , Semiconductor doping , Silicon wafers , Stoichiometry , Strain relaxation , X ray photoelectron spectroscopy
Kennedy, N., Duffy, R., Mirabelli, G., Eaton, L., Petkov, N., Holmes, J. D., Hatem, C., Walsh, L. and Long, B. (2019) 'Monolayer doping of silicon-germanium alloys: A balancing act between phosphorus incorporation and strain relaxation', Journal of Applied Physics, 126 (2), 025103 (9 pp). 10.1063/1.5086356
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