‘Low-salt’ bread as an important component of a pragmatic reduced-salt diet for lowering blood pressure in adults with elevated blood pressure

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dc.contributor.author Cashman, Kevin D.
dc.contributor.author Kenny, Sorcha
dc.contributor.author Kerry, Joseph P.
dc.contributor.author Leenhardt, Fanny
dc.contributor.author Arendt, Elke K.
dc.date.accessioned 2019-09-17T15:37:13Z
dc.date.available 2019-09-17T15:37:13Z
dc.date.issued 2019-07-26
dc.identifier.citation Cashman, K. D., Kenny, S., Kerry, J. P., Leenhardt, F. and Arendt, E. K. (2019) '‘Low-Salt’ Bread as an Important Component of a Pragmatic Reduced-Salt Diet for Lowering Blood Pressure in Adults with Elevated Blood Pressure', Nutrients, 11(8), 1725. (15pp.) DOI: 10.3390/nu11081725 en
dc.identifier.volume 11 en
dc.identifier.issued 8 en
dc.identifier.startpage 1 en
dc.identifier.endpage 15 en
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10468/8554
dc.identifier.doi 10.3390/nu11081725 en
dc.description.abstract Reformulation of bread in terms of salt content remains an important measure to help achieve a reduction in salt intake in the population and for the prevention of hypertension and elevated blood pressure (BP). Our fundamental studies on the reduction of salt on dough and bread characteristics showed that wheat breads produced with 0.3 g salt/100 g (“low-salt”) were found to be comparable quality to that produced with the typical level of salt (1.2%). This food-based intervention trial examined, using a 5 week cross-over design, the potential for inclusion of “low-salt” bread as part of a pragmatic reduced-salt diet on BP, markers of bone metabolism, and plasma lipids in 97 adults with slightly to moderately elevated BP. Assuming all sodium from dietary intake was excreted through the urine, the intake of salt decreased by 1.7 g/day, on average, during the reduced-salt dietary period. Systolic BP was significantly lower (by 3.3 mmHg on average; p < 0.0001) during the reduced-salt dietary period compared to the usual-salt dietary period, but there was no significant difference (p = 0.81) in diastolic BP. There were no significant differences (p > 0.12, in all cases) in any of the urinary- or serum-based biochemical indices of calcium or bone metabolism or in plasma lipids between the two periods. In conclusion, a modest reduction in dietary salt intake, in which the use of “low-salt” (i.e., 0.3 g/100g) bread played a key role along with dietary advice, and led to a significant, and clinically meaningful, decrease in systolic, but not diastolic, BP in adults with mildly to moderately elevated BP. en
dc.description.sponsorship Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine (Grant number 06/rd/c/455) en
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf en
dc.language.iso en en
dc.publisher MDPI en
dc.relation.uri https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/11/8/1725/htm
dc.rights ©2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). en
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ en
dc.subject Sodium restriction en
dc.subject Low-salt bread en
dc.subject Hypertension en
dc.subject Blood pressure regulation en
dc.subject Crossover trial en
dc.title ‘Low-salt’ bread as an important component of a pragmatic reduced-salt diet for lowering blood pressure in adults with elevated blood pressure en
dc.type Article (peer-reviewed) en
dc.internal.authorcontactother Kevin Cashman, Cork Centre for Vitamin D and Nutrition Research, School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland. +353-21-490-3000 Email:k.cashman@ucc.ie en
dc.internal.availability Full text available en
dc.description.version Published Version en
dc.contributor.funder Food Institutional Research Measure en
dc.contributor.funder Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine en
dc.description.status Peer reviewed en
dc.identifier.journaltitle Nutrients en
dc.internal.IRISemailaddress k.cashman@ucc.ie en
dc.identifier.articleid 1725 en
dc.identifier.eissn 2072-6643


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©2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as ©2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
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