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Cork Open Research Archive (CORA) is UCC’s Open Access institutional repository which enables UCC researchers to make their research outputs freely available and accessible.


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Increased amygdalar metabotropic glutamate receptor 7 mRNA in a genetic mouse model of impaired fear extinction
(Springer Nature, 2018-09-13) O’Connor, Richard M.; McCafferty, Cian P.; Bravo, Javier A.; Singewald, Nicolas; Holmes, Andrew; Cryan, John F.; Science Foundation Ireland; Health Research Board; Irish Research Council for Science, Engineering and Technology; National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Austrian Science Fund
Rationale: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a devastating anxiety-related disorder which develops subsequent to a severe psychologically traumatic event. Only ~ 9% of people who experience such a trauma develop PTSD. It is clear that a number of factors, including genetics, influence whether an individual will develop PTSD subsequent to a trauma. The 129S1/SvImJ (S1) inbred mouse strain displays poor fear extinction and may be useful to model this specific aspect of PTSD. The metabotropic glutamate receptor 7 (mGlu7 receptor) has previously been shown to be involved in cognitive processes and anxiety-like behaviour placing it in a key position to regulate fear extinction processes. We sought to compare mGlu7 receptor mRNA levels in the S1 strain with those in the robustly extinguishing C57BL/6J (B6) inbred strain using in situ hybridisation (ISH) in three brain regions associated with fear extinction: the amygdala, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Results: Compared to the B6 strain, S1 mice had increased mGlu7 receptor mRNA levels in the lateral amygdala (LA) and basolateral amygdala (BLA) subdivisions. An increase was also seen in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 subregions of S1 mice. No difference in mGlu7 receptor levels were seen in the central nucleus (CeA) of the amygdala, dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus or prefrontal cortex. Conclusions: These data show altered mGlu7 receptor expression in key brain regions associated with fear extinction in two different inbred mouse strains which differ markedly in their fear extinction behaviour. Altered mGlu7 receptor levels may contribute to the deficit fear extinction processes seen in fear extinction in the S1 strain.
Photochemistry of 2-butenedial and 4-oxo-2-pentenal under atmospheric boundary layer conditions
(Royal Society of Chemistry, 2018-12-21) Newland, Mike J.; Rea, Gerard J.; Thüner, Lars P.; Henderson, Alistair P.; Golding, Bernard T.; Rickard, Andrew R.; Barnes, Ian; Wenger, John; Horizon 2020; Natural Environment Research Council
Unsaturated 1,4-dicarbonyl compounds, such as 2-butenedial and 4-oxo-2-pentenal are produced in the atmospheric boundary layer from the oxidation of aromatic compounds and furans. These species are expected to undergo rapid photochemical processing, affecting atmospheric composition. In this study, the photochemistry of (E)-2-butenedial and both E and Z isomers of 4-oxo-2-pentenal was investigated under natural sunlight conditions at the large outdoor atmospheric simulation chamber EUPHORE. Photochemical loss rates, relative to j(NO2), are determined to be j((E)-2-butenedial)/j(NO2) = 0.14 (±0.02), j((E)-4-oxo-2-pentenal)/j(NO2) = 0.18 (±0.01), and j((Z)-4-oxo-2-pentenal)/j(NO2) = 0.20 (±0.03). The major products detected for both species are a furanone (30–42%) and, for (E)-2-butenedial, maleic anhydride (2,5-furandione) (12–14%). The mechanism appears to proceed predominantly via photoisomerization to a ketene–enol species following γ-H abstraction. The lifetimes of the ketene–enol species in the dark from 2-butenedial and 4-oxo-2-pentenal are determined to be 465 s and 235 s, respectively. The ketene–enol can undergo ring closure to yield the corresponding furanone, or further unimolecular rearrangement which can subsequently form maleic anhydride. A minor channel (10–15%) also appears to form CO directly. This is presumed to be via a molecular elimination route of an initial biradical intermediate formed in photolysis, with an unsaturated carbonyl (detected here but not quantified) as co-product. α-Dicarbonyl and radical yields are very low, which has implications for ozone production from the photo-oxidation of unsaturated 1,4-dicarbonyls in the boundary layer. Photochemical removal is determined to be the major loss process for these species in the boundary layer with lifetimes of the order of 10–15 minutes, compared to >3 hours for reaction with OH.
Puberty and the evolution of developmental science
(John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2019-03-14) Worthman, Carol M.; Dockray, Samantha; Marceau, Kristine
In recent decades, theoretical and methodological advances have operated synergistically to advance understanding of puberty and prompt increasingly comprehensive models that engage with the temporal, psychosocial, and biological dimensions of this maturational milepost. This integrative overview discusses these theoretical and methodological advances and their implications for research and intervention to promote human development in the context of changing maturational schedules and massive ongoing social transformations.
Interdisciplinary work is essential for research on puberty: Complexity and dynamism in action
(John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2019-03-14) Susman, Elizabeth J.; Marceau, Kristine; Dockray, Samantha; Ram, Nilam
Puberty is associated with changes in behavior and psychosocial well‐being, and is important in lifelong health. We present five different facets regarding interdisciplinary research that are important to puberty. A short history of philosophical issues instrumental in promoting early interdisciplinary research is first presented. We discuss then what is hard and what is easy about interdisciplinary research, the purpose of which is to alert scientists to challenges and opportunities for interdisciplinary research on puberty. Readers then are introduced to advances and obstacles in interdisciplinary research on development. Recommendations for tailoring graduate education toward interdisciplinarity are introduced. Finally, issues related to publication, education of scientists, and policy makers are described. The report concludes with a discussion of funding and policy issues.
Investigation of halogenated furanones as inhibitors of quorum sensing-regulated bioluminescence in Vibrio harveyi
(Future Science Group, 2023-03-17) Pinheiro, Jorge; Lyons, Thérèse; Las Heras, Vanessa; Recio, Miguel Villoria; Gahan, Cormac G. M.; O'Sullivan, Timothy P.
Aim: Vibrio harveyi is a Gram-negative marine bacterium that is a model system in the study of quorum sensing (QS). V. harveyi uses multichannel QS, mediated by three signaling molecules. The aim of this study was to synthesize and screen a diverse series of furanones for their potential to inhibit V. harveyi quorum sensing. Materials & methods: A library of halogenated furanones was prepared and derivatized using standard Pd-mediated coupling reactions and subsequently evaluated for their effects on V. harveyi bioluminescence. Results & conclusion: Several furanones inhibited QS-regulated bioluminescence, with gem-dichlorofuranone and tribromofuranone compounds proving especially effective. Importantly, a number of compounds were effective inhibitors of V. harveyi bioluminescence but did not have an impact on bacterial growth.