Fabrication and electrochemical properties of three-dimensional (3D) porous graphitic and graphenelike electrodes obtained by low-cost direct laser writing methods

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Burke, Micheal
Larrigy, Cathal
Vaughan, Eoghan
Paterakis, George
Sygellou, Labrini
Quinn, Aidan J.
Herzog, Grégoire
Galiotis, Costas
Iacopino, Daniela
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The development of three-dimensional (3D) porous graphitic structures is of great interest for electrochemical sensing applications as they can support fast charge transfer and mass transport through their extended, large surface area networks. In this work, we present the facile fabrication of conductive and porous graphitic electrodes by direct laser writing techniques. Irradiation of commercial polyimide sheets (Kapton tape) was performed using a low-cost laser engraving machine with visible excitation wavelength (405 nm) at low power (500 mW), leading to formation of 3D laser-induced graphene (LIG) structures. Systematic correlation between applied laser dwell time per pixel (“dwell time”) and morphological/structural properties of fabricated electrodes showed that conductive and highly 3D porous structures with spectral signatures of nanocrystalline graphitic carbon materials were obtained at laser dwell times between 20 and 110 ms/pix, with graphenelike carbon produced at 50 ms/pix dwell time, with comparable properties to LIG obtained with high cost CO2 lasers. Electrochemical characterization with inner and outer sphere mediators showed fast electron transfer rates, comparable to previously reported 2D/3D graphene-based materials and other graphitic carbon electrodes. This work opens the way to the facile fabrication of low-cost, disposable electrochemical sensor platforms for decentralized assays.
Laser induced graphene , Electrochemical sensors , Graphitic electrodes , Direct laser writing , Carbon , Electrodes , Chemical structure , Polyimides , Lasers
Burke, M., Larrigy, C., Vaughan, E., Paterakis, G., Sygellou, L., Quinn, A. J., Herzog, G., Galiotis, C. and Iacopino, D. (2020) 'Fabrication and Electrochemical Properties of Three-Dimensional (3D) Porous Graphitic and Graphenelike Electrodes Obtained by Low-Cost Direct Laser Writing Methods', ACS Omega, 5, pp. 1540-1548. doi: 10.1021/acsomega.9b03418