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- ItemBeyond car efficiency and electrification: Examining the role of demand reduction, public transit, and active travel measures to reduce GHG emissions in transport(2021) O'Riordan, Vera; Daly, Hannah; Mac Uidhir, Tomás; Ó Gallachóir, Brian P.; Rogan, Fionn; Climate and Energy Modelling ServicesThis paper applies a data set of passenger kilometre transport demand by trip-purpose, mode type and tripdistance based on the outcomes of a National Travel Survey. The Irish Passenger Transport Emissions and Mobility (IPTEM) model enables a system-wide perspective on various measures which could be introduced to reduce passenger transport emissions. Combined with the LEAP Ireland 2050 energy systems simulation model, the carbon abatement potential of trip-purpose based policies, modal shift policies and technology improvements in public transport can be assessed. The results indicate that significant savings can be achieved from modal shift in Ireland, and that trip-purpose based targets and policies have a relevance in the effort to reduce Ireland’s energy related transport CO2 emissions. The active mode scenarios, which focus on increased walking and cycling achieve a 0.2 – 1 MTCO2 reduction in annual passenger transport emissions in 2030. The range of public transport scenarios, inspired by targets set out by the Irish Government’s Climate Action Plan achieve a between 0.001 – 0.3 MTCO2 reduction in annual passenger transport emissions in 2030. In addition, traffic camera data is used to model the impact of COVID-19 travel restrictions on transport CO2 emissions. The calculated reduction in transport CO2 emissions is 3.9 MTCO2 for 2020 and 2021. This study highlights the importance of factoring modal shift, trip distance and trip purpose into scenario analysis for transport emissions reduction, as it provides a framework for looking beyond only improving technologies in private vehicle transport.