Synthesis and reactivity of α-diazo-β-keto sulfoxides: scope and synthetic potential

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Buckley, Naomi M.
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University College Cork
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The research described in this thesis focuses on the design and synthesis of stable α-diazosulfoxides and investigation of their reactivity under a variety of conditions (transition-metal catalysis, thermal, photochemical and microwave) with a particular emphasis on the synthesis of novel heterocyclic compounds with potential biological activity. The exclusive reaction pathway for these α-diazosulfoxides was found to be hetero-Wolff rearrangement to give α-oxosulfine intermediates. In the first chapter, a literature review of sulfines is presented, including a discussion of naturally occurring sulfines, and an overview of the synthesis and reactivity of sulfines. The potential of sulfines in organic synthesis and recent developments in particular are highlighted. The second chapter discusses the synthesis and reactivity of α-diazosulfoxides, building on earlier results in this research group. The synthesis of lactone-based α-diazosulfoxides and, for the first time, ketone-based benzofused and monocyclic α-diazosulfoxides is described. The reactivity of these α-diazosulfoxides is then explored under a variety of conditions, such as transition-metal catalysis, photochemical and microwave, generating labile α-oxosulfine intermediates, which are trapped using amines and dienes, in addition to the spontaneous reaction pathways which occur with α-oxosulfines in the absence of a trap. A new reaction pathway was explored with the lactone based α-oxosulfines, involving reaction with amines to generate novel 3-aminofuran-2(5H)-ones via carbophilic attack, in very good yields. The reactivity of ketone-based α-diazosulfoxides was explored for the first time, and once again, pseudo-Wolff rearrangement to the α-oxosulfines was the exclusive reaction pathway observed. The intermediacy of the α-oxosulfines was confirmed by trapping as cycloadducts, with the stereochemical features dependant on the reaction conditions. In the absence of a diene trap, a number of reaction fates from the α-oxosulfines were observed, including complete sulfinyl extrusion to give indanones, sulfur extrusion to give indanediones, and, to a lesser extent, dimerisation. The indanediones were characterised by trapping as quinoxalines, to enable full characterisation. One of the overriding outcomes of this thesis was the provision of new insights into the behaviour of α-oxosulfines with different transition metal catalysts, and under thermal, microwave and photolysis conditions. A series of 3-aminofuran-2(5H)-ones and benzofused dihydro-2H-thiopyran S-oxides were submitted for anticancer screening at the U.S. National Cancer Institute. A number of these derivatives were identified as hit compounds, with excellent cell growth inhibition. One 3-aminofuran-2(5H)-one derivative has been chosen for further screening. The third chapter details the full experimental procedures, including spectroscopic and analytical data for the compounds prepared during this research. The data for the crystal structures are contained in the attached CD.
Organic synthesis , Diazo chemistry , Reactive intermediates
Buckley, N. M. 2013. Synthesis and reactivity of α-diazo-β-keto sulfoxides: scope and synthetic potential. PhD Thesis, University College Cork.
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