National food consumption surveys: micronutrient intakes and the role of fortified foods in the diets of Irish pre-school children and adults

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dc.contributor.advisor Flynn, Albert en
dc.contributor.author Hennessy, Áine
dc.date.accessioned 2014-02-03T17:12:15Z
dc.date.issued 2013
dc.date.submitted 2013
dc.identifier.citation Hennessey, A. 2013. National food consumption surveys: micronutrient intakes and the role of fortified foods in the diets of Irish pre-school children and adults. PhD Thesis, University College Cork. en
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10468/1360
dc.description.abstract This research investigated the micronutrient intakes of Irish pre-school children (1-4 years) and adults (18-64 years) and the role that fortified foods (FFs) play in the diets of these population groups. Dietary intake data were collected as part of the National Pre-school Nutrition Survey (NPNS) (2010-2011) and the National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS) (2008-2010) using 4-day food and beverage records. Nutrient intakes were estimated using WISP©, which encompasses McCance and Widdowson’s The Composition of Foods and the Irish Food Composition Database. A FF is one in which one or more micronutrients are added. Key dietary sources of micronutrients in NPNS and NANS were “milk”, “meat & meat products”, “breakfast cereals”, “fruit & fruit juices” and “breads”. In general, intakes of most micronutrients were adequate with the exception of iron (1 year old children and adult women) and vitamin D (in all population groups). Small proportions of the pre-school population had intakes which exceeded the upper level (UL) (zinc: 11%, folic acid: 5%, retinol: 4%, copper: 2%). Less than 2% of adults had intakes of iron, copper, zinc and vitamin B6 which exceeded the UL. FFs were consumed by 97% of pre-school children and 82% of adults, representing 17% and 9% of mean daily energy intake respectively. Relative to energy intake, FFs contributed substantially greater proportions to intakes of key micronutrients, such as iron and vitamin D. FFs were effective in reducing the prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intakes in these population groups, particularly for iron in women and 1 year old children. FFs made a significant contribution to folate intake in women of childbearing age (72µg). FFs contributed greater proportions of carbohydrate and lower proportions of fat to the diets of consumers. Voluntary addition of nutrients to foods did not contribute appreciably to intakes exceeding the UL in these population groups. en
dc.description.sponsorship Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland (Food for Health Research Initiative 07/FHRI/UCC/2) en
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf en
dc.language.iso en en
dc.publisher University College Cork en
dc.rights © 2013, Áine Hennessey. en
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/ en
dc.subject Micronutrients en
dc.subject Pre-school children en
dc.subject Adults en
dc.subject Fortified foods en
dc.subject Adequacy en
dc.subject.lcsh Trace elements in nutrition en
dc.subject.lcsh Enriched foods en
dc.subject.lcsh Preschool children--Nutrition--Ireland en
dc.title National food consumption surveys: micronutrient intakes and the role of fortified foods in the diets of Irish pre-school children and adults en
dc.type Doctoral thesis en
dc.type.qualificationlevel Doctoral en
dc.type.qualificationname PhD (Food Science and Technology) en
dc.internal.availability Full text not available en
dc.check.info Indefinite en
dc.check.date 10000-01-01
dc.description.version Accepted Version
dc.contributor.funder Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland en
dc.description.status Not peer reviewed en
dc.internal.school Food and Nutritional Sciences en
dc.check.reason This thesis is due for publication or the author is actively seeking to publish this material en
dc.check.opt-out Yes en
dc.thesis.opt-out true
dc.check.entireThesis Entire Thesis Restricted
dc.check.embargoformat E-thesis on CORA only en
dc.internal.conferring Autumn Conferring 2013 en


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© 2013, Áine Hennessey. Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as © 2013, Áine Hennessey.
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