Development of food ingredients for modulation of glycemia
Kett, Anthony Paul
University College Cork
Starches are a source of digestible carbohydrate and are frequently used in formulated food products in the presence of other carbohydrates, proteins and fat. This thesis explored the effect of addition of neutral (Konjac glucomannan) or charged (milk proteins) polymers on the physical characteristics and digestion kinetics of waxy maize starch. The aim was to identify mechanisms to modulate the pasting properties and subsequent susceptibility to amylolytic digestion. Addition of αs- or β-caseinate protein fractions to waxy maize starch restricted granular swelling during gelatinisation, increasing granule integrity. It was shown that, while β-caseinate can adsorb to starch granules during pasting, αscaseinate can be absorbed into maize starch granules. The resultant effect was a reduction in granule size after heating, more intact granules and a subsequent decrease in starch digestion in vitro as determined by analysis of reducing sugars. The ability of αs-caseinate to reduce the level of amylolytic digestion was confirmed through in vivo pig (Teagasc, Moorepark) and human (University of Surrey, UK) trials. The scope of the thesis extended to the development of a new automated cell for attachment to a rheometer to measure digestion kinetics of starch-protein mixtures. In conclusion, the thesis offers new approaches to modulation of the physical characteristics of unmodified starch during gelatinisation and suggests that the type of protein and/or polysaccharide used in starch-based food systems may influence the ability of the food to modulate glycemia. This is an important consideration in the design of foods with positive health benefits.
Glycemia , Starch , Caseinate , Gelatinisation
Kett, A. P. 2013. Development of food ingredients for modulation of glycemia. PhD Thesis, University College Cork.