Novel ingredients from brewers' spent grain - bioactivity in cell culture model systems and bioactivity retention in fortified food products
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McCarthy, Aoife Louise
University College Cork
Functional food ingredients, with scientifically proven and validated bioactive effects, present an effective means of inferring physiological health benefits to consumers to reduce the risk of certain diseases. The search for novel bioactive compounds for incorporation into functional foods is particularly active, with brewers’ spent grain (BSG, a brewing industry co-product) representing a unique source of potentially bioactive compounds. The DNA protective, antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects of phenolic extracts from both pale (P1 - P4) and black (B1 – B4) BSG were examined. Black BSG extracts significantly (P < 0.05) protected against DNA damage induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and extracts with the highest total phenolic content (TPC) protected against 3-morpholinosydnonimine hydrochloride (SIN-1)-induced oxidative DNA damage, measured by the comet assay. Cellular antioxidant activity assays were used to measured antioxidant potential in the U937 cell line. Extracts P1 – P3 and B2 - B4 demonstrated significant (P < 0.05) antioxidant activity, measured by the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, catalase (CAT) activity and gluatathione (GSH) content assays. Phenolic extracts P2 and P3 from pale BSG possess anti-inflammatory activity measured in concanavalin-A (conA) stimulated Jurkat T cells by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); significantly (P < 0.05) reducing production of interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-4 (IL-4, P2 only), interleukin-10 (IL-10) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ). Black BSG phenolic extracts did not exhibit anti-inflammatory effects in vitro. Hydroxycinnamic acids (HA) have previously been shown to be the phenolic acids present at highest concentration in BSG; therefore the HA profile of the phenolic extracts used in this research, the original barley (before brewing) and whole BSG was characterised and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The concentration of HA present in the samples was in the order of ferulic acid (FA) > p-coumaric acid (p-CA) derivatives > FA derivatives > p-CA > caffeic acid (CA) > CA derivatives. Results suggested that brewing and roasting decreased the HA content. Protein hydrolysates from BSG were also screened for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential. A total of 34 BSG protein samples were tested. Initial analyses of samples A – J found the protein samples did not exert DNA protective effects (except hydrolysate H) or antioxidant effects by the comet and SOD assays, respectively. Samples D, E, F and J selectively reduced IFN-γ production (P < 0.05) in Jurkat T cells, measured using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Further testing of hydrolysates K – W, including fractionated hydrolysates with molecular weight < 3, < 5 and > 5 kDa, found that higher molecular weight (> 5 kDa) and unfractionated hydrolysates demonstrate greatest anti-inflammatory effects, while fractionated hydrolysates were also shown to have antioxidant activity, by the SOD activity assay. A commercially available yogurt drink (Actimel) and snack-bar and chocolate-drink formulations were fortified with the most bioactive phenolic and protein samples – P2, B2, W, W < 3 kDa, W < 5 kDa, W > 5 kDa. All fortified foods were subjected to a simulated gastrointestinal in vitro digestion procedure and bioactivity retention in the digestates was determined using the comet and ELISA assays. Yogurt fortified with B2 digestate significantly (P < 0.05) protected against H2O2-induced DNA damage in Caco-2 cells. Greatest immunomodulatory activity was demonstrated by the snack-bar formulation, significantly (P < 0.05) reducing IFN-γ production in con-A stimulated Jurkat T cells. Hydrolysate W significantly (P < 0.05) increased the IFN-γ reducing capacity of the snack-bar. Addition of fractionated hydrolysate W < 3 kDa and W < 5 kDa to yogurt also reduced IL-2 production to a greater extent than the unfortified yogurt (P < 0.05).
Bioactivity , Brewers' spent grain , Protein hydrolysates , Phenolic extracts , Functional foods , Anti-inflammatory , Antioxidant
McCarthy, A. L. 2013. Novel ingredients from brewers' spent grain - bioactivity in cell culture model systems and bioactivity retention in fortified food products. PhD Thesis, University College Cork.