The use of different blood sample preparations in the development of biomarkers for the environmental monitoring of domestic farm animals

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Groeger, David S.
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University College Cork
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The application of biological effect monitoring for the detection of environmental chemical exposure in domestic animals is still in its infancy. This study investigated blood sample preparations in vitro for their use in biological effect monitoring. When peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), isolated following the collection of multiple blood samples from sheep in the field, were cryopreserved and subsequently cultured for 24 hours a reduction in cell viability (<80%) was attributed to delays in the processing following collection. Alternative blood sample preparations using rat and sheep blood demonstrated that 3 to 5 hour incubations can be undertaken without significant alterations in the viability of the lymphocytes; however, a substantial reduction in viability was observed after 24 hours in frozen blood. Detectable levels of early and late apoptosis as well as increased levels of ROS were detectable in frozen sheep blood samples. The addition of ascorbic acid partly reversed this effect and reduced the loss in cell viability. The response of the rat and sheep blood sample preparations to genotoxic compounds ex vivo showed that EMS caused comparable dose-dependent genotoxic effects in all sample preparations (fresh and frozen) as detected by the Comet assay. In contrast, the effects of CdCl2 were dependent on the duration of exposure as well as the sample preparation. The analysis of leukocyte subsets in frozen sheep blood showed no alterations in the percentages of T and B lymphocytes but led to a major decrease in the percentage of granulocytes compared to those in the fresh samples. The percentages of IFN-γ and IL-4 but not IL-6 positive cells were comparable between fresh and frozen sheep blood after 4 hour stimulation with phorbol 12-myrisate 13-acetate and ionomycin (PMA+I). These results show that frozen blood gives comparable responses to fresh blood samples in the toxicological and immune assays used.
Biomonitoring , Blood sample preparations
Groeger, D. S. 2014. The use of different blood sample preparations in the development of biomarkers for the environmental monitoring of domestic farm animals. PhD Thesis, University College Cork.
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