Pregnancy-specific glycoprotein function, conservation and receptor investigation

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O'Riordan, Ronan T.
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University College Cork
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Pregnancy-specific glycoproteins (PSGs) are highly glycosylated secreted proteins encoded by multi-gene families in some placental mammals. They are carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family and immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily members. PSGs are immunomodulatory, and have been demonstrated to possess antiplatelet and pro-angiogenic properties. Low serum levels of these proteins have been correlated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Objectives: Main research goals of this thesis were: 1). To attempt to replicate previously reported cytokine responses to PSG-treatment of immune cells and subsequently to investigate functionally important amino acids within PSG1. 2). To determine whether candidate receptor, integrin αvβ3, was a binding partner for PSG1 and to investigate whether PSG1 possessed functionality in a leukocyte-endothelial interaction assay. 3). To determine whether proteins generated from recently identified putative PSG genes in the horse shared functional properties with PSGs from other species. Outcomes: 1). Sequential domain deletion of PSG1 as well as mutation of conserved residues within the PSG1 Ndomain did not affect PSG1-induced TGF-β1. The investigated response was subsequently found to be the result of latent TGF-β1 contaminating the recombinant protein. Protein further purified by SEC to remove this showed no induction of TGF-β1. The most N-terminal glycosylation site was demonstrated to have an important role in PSG N domain secretion. PSG1 attenuated LPS-induced IL-6 and TNF-α. Investigations into signalling underpinning this proved inconclusive. 2). Integrin αvβ3 was identified as a novel PSG1 receptor mediating an as yet unknown function. Preliminary investigations into a role for PSGs as inhibitors of leukocyte endothelial interactions showed no effect by PSG1. 3). Horse PSG protein, CEACAM49, was shown to be similarly contaminated by latent TGF-β1 particle and once removed did not demonstrate TGF-β1 release. Interestingly horse PSG did show anti-platelet properties through inhibition of the plateletfibrinogen interaction as previously published for mouse and human PSGs.
Integrin , Evolution , TGF-beta1 , Glycosylation , IL-6 , TNF-alpha , Secretion , Pregnancy-specific gycoprotein
O'Riordan, R. T. 2014. Pregnancy-specific glycoprotein function, conservation and receptor investigation. PhD Thesis, University College Cork.