Atomic layer deposition of interface control layers for the fabrication of III/V MOS devices
Mullins, John A.
University College Cork
The continued advancement of metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) technology has shifted the focus from Si/SiO2 transistors towards high-κ/III-V transistors for high performance, faster devices. This has been necessary due to the limitations associated with the scaling of the SiO2 thickness below ~1 nm and the associated increased leakage current due to direct electron tunnelling through the gate oxide. The use of these materials exhibiting lower effective charge carrier mass in conjunction with the use of a high-κ gate oxide allows for the continuation of device scaling and increases in the associated MOSFET device performance. The high-κ/III-V interface is a critical challenge to the integration of high-κ dielectrics on III-V channels. The interfacial chemistry of the high-κ/III-V system is more complex than Si, due to the nature of the multitude of potential native oxide chemistries at the surface with the resultant interfacial layer showing poor electrical insulating properties when high-κ dielectrics are deposited directly on these oxides. It is necessary to ensure that a good quality interface is formed in order to reduce leakage and interface state defect density to maximise channel mobility and reduce variability and power dissipation. In this work, the ALD growth of aluminium oxide (Al2O3) and hafnium oxide (HfO2) after various surface pre-treatments was carried out, with the aim of improving the high-κ/III-V interface by reducing the Dit – the density of interface defects caused by imperfections such as dangling bonds, dimers and other unsatisfied bonds at the interfaces of materials. A brief investigation was performed into the structural and electrical properties of Al2O3 films deposited on In0.53Ga0.47As at 200 and 300oC via a novel amidinate precursor. Samples were determined to experience a severe nucleation delay when deposited directly on native oxides, leading to diminished functionality as a gate insulator due to largely reduced growth per cycle. Aluminium oxide MOS capacitors were prepared by ALD and the electrical characteristics of GaAs, In0.53Ga0.47As and InP capacitors which had been exposed to pre-pulse treatments from triethyl gallium and trimethyl indium were examined, to determine if self-cleaning reactions similar to those of trimethyl aluminium occur for other alkyl precursors. An improved C-V characteristic was observed for GaAs devices indicating an improved interface possibly indicating an improvement of the surface upon pre-pulsing with TEG, conversely degraded electrical characteristics observed for In0.53Ga0.47As and InP MOS devices after pre-treatment with triethyl gallium and trimethyl indium respectively. The electrical characteristics of Al2O3/In0.53Ga0.47As MOS capacitors after in-situ H2/Ar plasma treatment or in-situ ammonium sulphide passivation were investigated and estimates of interface Dit calculated. The use of plasma reduced the amount of interface defects as evidenced in the improved C-V characteristics. Samples treated with ammonium sulphide in the ALD chamber were found to display no significant improvement of the high-κ/III-V interface. HfO2 MOS capacitors were fabricated using two different precursors comparing the industry standard hafnium chloride process with deposition from amide precursors incorporating a ~1nm interface control layer of aluminium oxide and the structural and electrical properties investigated. Capacitors furnished from the chloride process exhibited lower hysteresis and improved C-V characteristics as compared to that of hafnium dioxide grown from an amide precursor, an indication that no etching of the film takes place using the chloride precursor in conjunction with a 1nm interlayer. Optimisation of the amide process was carried out and scaled samples electrically characterised in order to determine if reduced bilayer structures display improved electrical characteristics. Samples were determined to exhibit good electrical characteristics with a low midgap Dit indicative of an unpinned Fermi level
ALD , III-V semiconductors , Capacitor , Atomic layer deposition
Mullins, J. A. 2014. Atomic layer deposition of interface control layers for the fabrication of III/V MOS devices. PhD Thesis, University College Cork.