Formation and characterisation of ordered porous vanadium oxide inverse opal materials for Li-ion batteries

Thumbnail Image
Ethesis_E.Armstrong_PhD.pdf(14.58 MB)
Full Text E-Thesis
Armstrong, Eileen
Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
University College Cork
Published Version
Research Projects
Organizational Units
Journal Issue
This thesis presents several routes towards achieving artificial opal templates by colloidal self-assembly of polystyrene (PS) or poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) spheres and the use of these template for the fabrication of V2O5 inverse opals as cathode materials for lithium ion battery applications. First, through the manipulation of different experimental factors, several methods of affecting or directing opal growth towards realizing different structures, improving order and/or achieving faster formation on a variety of substrates are presented. The addition of the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) at a concentration above the critical micelle concentration for SDS to a 5 wt% solution of PMMA spheres before dip-coating is presented as a method of achieving ordered 2D PhC monolayers on hydrophobic Au-coated silicon substrates at fast and slow rates of withdrawal. The effect that the degree of hydrophilicity of glass substrates has on the ordering of PMMA spheres is next investigated for a slow rate of withdrawal under noise agitation. Heating of the colloidal solution is also presented as a means of affecting order and thickness of opal deposits formed using fast rate dip coating. E-beam patterned substrates are shown as a means of altering the thermodynamically favoured FCC ordering of polystyrene spheres (PS) when dip coated at slow rate. Facile routes toward the synthesis of ordered V2O5 inverse opals are presented with direct infiltration of polymer sphere templates using liquid precursor. The use of different opal templates, both 2D and 3D partially ordered templates, is compared and the composition and arrangement of the subsequent IO structures post infiltration and calcination for various procedures is characterised. V2O5 IOs are also synthesised by electrodeposition from an aqueous VOSO4 solution at constant voltage. Electrochemical characterisation of these structures as cathode material for Li-ion batteries is assessed in a half cell arrangement for samples deposited on stainless steel foil substrates. Improved rate capabilities are demonstrated for these materials over bulk V2O5, with the improvement attributed to the shorter Li ion diffusion distances and increased electrolyte infiltration provided by the IO structure.
Artificial opals , Photonic crystals , Inverse opals , Colloidal crystals , Vanadium oxide , Lithium ion batteries
Armstrong, E. 2015. Formation and characterisation of ordered porous vanadium oxide inverse opal materials for Li-ion batteries. PhD Thesis, University College Cork.