Improved kinematic sensing for motion control applications

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Boggarpu, Naveen Kumar
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University College Cork
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New compensation methods are presented that can greatly reduce the slit errors (i.e. transition location errors) and interval errors induced due to non-idealities in optical incremental encoders (square-wave). An M/T-type, constant sample-time digital tachometer (CSDT) is selected for measuring the velocity of the sensor drives. Using this data, three encoder compensation techniques (two pseudoinverse based methods and an iterative method) are presented that improve velocity measurement accuracy. The methods do not require precise knowledge of shaft velocity. During the initial learning stage of the compensation algorithm (possibly performed in-situ), slit errors/interval errors are calculated through pseudoinversebased solutions of simple approximate linear equations, which can provide fast solutions, or an iterative method that requires very little memory storage. Subsequent operation of the motion system utilizes adjusted slit positions for more accurate velocity calculation. In the theoretical analysis of the compensation of encoder errors, encoder error sources such as random electrical noise and error in estimated reference velocity are considered. Initially, the proposed learning compensation techniques are validated by implementing the algorithms in MATLAB software, showing a 95% to 99% improvement in velocity measurement. However, it is also observed that the efficiency of the algorithm decreases with the higher presence of non-repetitive random noise and/or with the errors in reference velocity calculations. The performance improvement in velocity measurement is also demonstrated experimentally using motor-drive systems, each of which includes a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) for CSDT counting/timing purposes, and a digital-signal-processor (DSP). Results from open-loop velocity measurement and closed-loop servocontrol applications, on three optical incremental square-wave encoders and two motor drives, are compiled. While implementing these algorithms experimentally on different drives (with and without a flywheel) and on encoders of different resolutions, slit error reductions of 60% to 86% are obtained (typically approximately 80%).
Incremental encoders , Square-wave encoders , Learning algorithm , Motion sensors , Kinematic sensing
Boggarpu, N. K. 2015. Improved kinematic sensing for motion control applications. PhD Thesis, University College Cork.