The effects of formulation and processing on surface characteristics and functional properties of dairy powders

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Kelly, Grace M.
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University College Cork
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The objectives of this thesis were to (i) study the effect of increasing protein concentration in milk protein concentrate (MPC) powders on surface composition and sorption properties; (ii) examine the effect of increasing protein content on the rehydration properties of MPC; (iii) study the physicochemical properties of spraydried emulsion-containing powders having different water and oil contents; (iv) analyse the effect of protein type on water sorption and diffusivity properties in a protein/lactose dispersion, and; (v) characterise lactose crystallisation and emulsion stability of model infant formula containing intact or hydrolysed whey proteins. Surface composition of MPC powders (protein contents 35 - 86 g / 100 g) indicated that fat and protein were preferentially located on the surface of powders. Low protein powder (35 g / 100 g) exhibited lactose crystallisation, whereas powders with higher protein contents did not, due to their high protein: lactose ratio. Insolubility was evident in high protein MPCs and was primarily related to insolubility of the casein fraction. High temperature (50 °C) was required for dissolution of high protein MPCs (protein content > 60 g / 100 g). The effect of different oil types and spray-drying outlet temperature on the physicochemical properties of the resultant fat-filled powders was investigated and showed that increasing outlet temperature reduced water content, water activity and tapped bulk density, irrespective of oil type, and increased solvent-extractable free fat for all oil types and onset of glass transition (Tg) and crystallisation (Tcr) temperature. Powder dispersions of protein/lactose (0.21:1), containing either intact or hydrolysed whey protein (12 % degree of hydrolysis; DH), were spray-dried at pilot scale. Moisture sorption analysis at 25 °C showed that dispersions containing intact whey protein exhibited lactose crystallisation at a lower relative humidity (RH). Dispersions containing hydrolysed whey protein had significantly higher (P < 0.05) water diffusivity. Finally, a spray-dried model infant formula was produced containing hydrolysed or intact whey as the protein with sunflower oil as the fat source. Reconstituted, hydrolysed formula had a significantly (P < 0.05) higher fat globule size and lower emulsion stability than intact formula. Lactose crystallisation in powders occurred at higher RH for hydrolysed formula. In conclusion, this research has shown the effect of altering the protein type, protein composition, and oil type on the surface composition and physical properties of different dairy powders, and how these variations greatly affect their rehydration characteristics and storage stability.
Dairy powders , Surface composition , XPS , Formulation
Kelly, G. M. 2016. The effects of formulation and processing on surface characteristics and functional properties of dairy powders. PhD Thesis, University College Cork.