Fabrication and characterization of microfabricated on-chip microelectrochemical cell for biosensing applications

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Mohd Said, Nur Azura
Twomey, Karen
Herzog, G.
Ogurtsov, Vladimir I.
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The fabrication of on-chip microelectrochemical cell on Si wafer by means of photolithography is described here. The single on-chip microelectrochemical cell device has dimensions of 100 × 380 mm with integrated Pt counter electrode (CE), Ag/AgCl reference electrode (RE) and gold microelectrode array of 500 nm recess depth as the working electrode (WE). Two geometries of electrode array were implemented, band and disc, with fixed diameter/width of 10 µm; and varied centre-to-centre spacing (d) and number of electrodes (N) in the array. The on-chip microelectrochemical cell structure has been designed to facilitate further WE biomodifications. Firstly, the developed microelectrochemical cell does not require packaging hence reducing the production cost and time. Secondly, the working electrode (WE) on the microelectrochemical cell is positioned towards the end of the chip enabling modification of the working electrode surface to be carried out for surface bio-functionalisation without affecting both the RE and CE surface conditions. The developed on-chip microelectrochemical cell was examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and characterised by two electrochemical techniques. Both cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were performed in 1 mM ferrocenecarboxylic acid (FCA) in 0.01 M phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution at pH7.4. Electrochemical experiments showed that in the case of halving the interspacing distance of the microdisc WE array (50 nm instead of 100 nm), the voltammogram shifted from a steady-state CV (feature of hemispherical diffusion) to an inclined peak-shaped CV (feature of linear diffusion) albeit the arrays had the same surface area. In terms of EIS it was also found that linear diffusion dominates the surface instead of hemispherical diffusion once the interspacing distance was reduced, supporting the fact that closely packed arrays may behave like a macroelectrode.
Linear diffusion , Macroelectrode , Voltammogram
Said, N. A. M., Twomey, K., Herzog, G. and Ogurtsov, V. I. (2017) ‘Fabrication and characterization of microfabricated on-chip microelectrochemical cell for biosensing applications’, AIP Conference Proceedings, 1808, 020032 (13pp). doi: 10.1063/1.4975265
© 2017, the Authors. Reproduced with the permission of AIP Publishing from AIP Conference Proceedings, 1808, 020032 (13pp). doi: 10.1063/1.4975265