Classification of processes for the atomic layer deposition of metals based on mechanistic information from density functional theory calculations
Elliott, Simon D.
Reaction cycles for the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of metals are presented, based on the incomplete data that exist about their chemical mechanisms, particularly from density functional theory (DFT) calculations. ALD requires self-limiting adsorption of each precursor, which results from exhaustion of adsorbates from previous ALD pulses and possibly from inactivation of the substrate through adsorption itself. Where the latter reaction does not take place, an “abbreviated cycle” still gives self-limiting ALD, but at a much reduced rate of deposition. Here, for example, ALD growth rates are estimated for abbreviated cycles in H2-based ALD of metals. A wide variety of other processes for the ALD of metals are also outlined and then classified according to which a reagent supplies electrons for reduction of the metal. Detailed results on computing the mechanism of copper ALD by transmetallation are summarized and shown to be consistent with experimental growth rates. Potential routes to the ALD of other transition metals by using complexes of non-innocent diazadienyl ligands as metal sources are also evaluated using DFT.
Adsorbed layers , Adsorption , Atomic layer deposition , Copper , Density functional theory
Elliott, S. D., Dey, G.; Maimaiti, Y. (2017) 'Classification of processes for the atomic layer deposition of metals based on mechanistic information from density functional theory calculations', Journal of Chemical Physics, 146(5), 052822 (11pp). doi:10.1063/1.4975085
© 2017, the Authors. Published by AIP Publishing. This article may be downloaded for personal use only. Any other use requires prior permission of the authors and AIP Publishing. The following article appeared in Elliott, S. D., Dey, G.; Maimaiti, Y., Journal of Chemical Physics, 146(5), 052822 (11pp), and may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4975085