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Stress resistance during the lag phase of wine fermentation and development of optimized yeasts
University College Cork
Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used for millennia to perform wine fermentation due to its endurance and unmatched qualities and is nowadays widely used as wine yeast starter. Nevertheless, at the moment of inoculation, wine yeasts must cope with specific stress factors that can compromise the fermentation start. The objective of this work was to elucidate the metabolic and molecular bases of multi-stress resistance during wine fermentation lag phase. We first characterized a set of commercialized wine yeast strains by focusing on stress factors typically found at this stage in red wines and in white wines. Temperature and osmotic stress had a drastic impact in lag phase for all strains whereas SO2, low lipids and thiamine had a more strain dependent effect. Based on these data, we developed two parallel approaches. Using an evolutionary engineering approach where selective pressures typically present in lag phase were applied, we obtained evolved strains with a shorter lag phase in winemaking conditions. Whole genome sequencing allowed to identify several de novo mutations potentially involved in the evolved phenotype. In parallel, a QTL mapping approach was conducted, combining an intercross strategy, industrial propagation and drying of the progeny populations and selection of the first budding cells by FACS. Both strategies allowed the identification of several allelic variants involved in cell wall, glucose transport, cell cycle and stress resistance, as important in lag phase phenotype. Overall, these results provide a deeper knowledge of the diversity and the genetic bases of yeast adaptation to wine fermentation lag phase and a framework for improving yeast lag phase. Additionally, we showed that K. marxianus has potential for mixed cultures and positive aromatic contributions under oenological conditions, opening new possibilities for further studies.
Wine fermentation , Yeast , Lag phase , Multi-stress resistance , QTL , Adaptive evolution , K. marxianus
Ferreira, D. 2017. Stress resistance during the lag phase of wine fermentation and development of optimized yeasts. PhD Thesis, University College Cork.