Males' awareness of benign testicular disorders: an integrative review

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Saab, Mohamad M.
Landers, Margaret
Hegarty, Josephine
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Disorders that affect the testes can range from painless and benign to debilitating and life threatening. Despite the availability of literature on the etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of benign testicular disorders (BTD), very little is known about men’s awareness of these conditions. The aim of this review was to extract and analyze evidence from studies that explored males’ awareness of BTD. Four e-databases (CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, and PubMed) were thoroughly searched and four articles met the review inclusion criteria. The quality of the included studies was appraised and data were extracted and cross-checked using a standardized data extraction table. It was determined that participants lacked education about testicular self-examination and scrotal signs and symptoms which contributed to their lack of awareness of BTD. Help seeking in the event of scrotal abnormalities was suboptimal which is alarming given the acuteness of some BTD such as testicular torsion. Individuals who are at risk for health disparities were underrepresented in the reviewed literature. Findings from this review highlight the need to address barriers to BTD knowledge and help seeking. This could be achieved through making use of past interventions that succeeded in increasing men’s awareness of testicular cancer such as university campaigns and mass media. From a practical standpoint, clinicians must be encouraged to educate young men about BTD. This could be attained through tailoring creative educational interventions that are sensitive to the needs of individuals who are at risk for health disparities.
Benign testicular disorders , Awareness , Knowledge , Help seeking , Males , Male university-students , Self-examination , Public awareness , Cancer awareness , Knowledge , Information , Diagnosis , Health , Men , Epididymitis
Saab, M. M., Landers, M. and Hegarty, J. (2018) 'Males’ Awareness of Benign Testicular Disorders: An Integrative Review', American Journal of Men's Health, 12(3), pp. 556-566. doi: 10.1177/1557988315626508
© The Author(s) 2016. Reprinted by permission of SAGE Publications.