Cocrystallisation involving the thioamide, amide and imide functional groups

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Morrison, Robin E.
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University College Cork
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The work presented in this dissertation focused on the development and characterisation of novel cocrystals that incorporated the thioamide, amide and imide functional groups. A particular emphasis was placed on the characterisation of these cocrystals by single crystal X-ray diffraction methods. In Chapter One a summary of the intermolecular interactions utilised in this work and a short review of the solid state and multicomponent systems is provided. A brief introduction to the ways in which different multicomponent systems can be distinguished, crystal engineering strategies and a number of cocrystal applications highlights the importance the understanding of intermolecular interactions can have on the physical and chemical properties of crystalline materials. Chapter Two is the first Results and Discussion chapter and includes an introduction that is specific to the chapter. The main body of this work focuses on the primary aromatic thioamide functional group and its propensity to cocrystallise with a number of sulfoxides. Unlike the amide functional group, thioamides are not commonly employed in cocrystallisation studies. This chapter presents the first direct comparison between the cocrystallisation abilities of these two functional groups and the intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions present in the cocrystal structures are examined. Chapter Three describes the crystal landscape of a short series of secondary aromatic amides and their analogous thioamides. Building on the results obtained in Chapter Two, a cocrystal screen of the secondary thioamides with the sulfoxide functional group was carried out in order to determine the effect removing a hydrogen bond had on the supramolecular synthons observed in the cocrystals. These secondary thioamides are also utilised in Chapter Four, which examines their halogen bonding capabilities with two organoiodine coformers: 1,2- and 1,4-diiodotetrafluorobenzene. Chapter Five explores the cocrystallisation abilities of three related cyclic imides as coformers for cocrystallisation with a range of commonly used coformers. Chapter Six is an overall conclusions chapter that highlights the findings of the results presented in Chapters Two to Five. Chapter Seven details the instrument and experimental data for the compounds and cocrystals discussed in the Results and Discussion Chapters. The accompanying CD contains all of the crystallographic data in .cif format for the novel single crystal structures characterised in this work.
Cocrystal , Thioamide
Morrison, R.E. 2016. Cocrystallisation involving the thioamide, amide and imide functional groups. PhD Thesis, University College Cork.