Identification and characterization of innate immune receptor substrates of γ-secretase enzyme complex
University College Cork
The γ-secretase protease complexes and associated regulated intramembrane proteolysis play an important role in controlling receptor-mediated intracellular signalling events, which have a central role in Alzheimer’s disease, cancer progression and immune surveillance. It has previously been reported that the Interleukin-1 receptor, type 1, (IL-1R1) is a substrate for regulated intramembrane proteolysis, mediated by presenilin (PS)-dependent γ-secretase activity. The aims of this project were twofold. Firstly, to determine the conservation of regulated intramembrane proteolysis as a physiological occurrence amongst other cytokine receptors. In this regard, similar to IL-1R1, we identified the Tumour necrosis factor receptor type 1 (TNFR1) and the Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) as novel γ-secretase substrates. Secondly, given that the diversity of signalling events mediated by the IL-1R1, TLR4 and TNFR1 are spatially segregated, we investigated the spatial distribution, subcellular trafficking and subcellular occurrence of regulated intramembrane proteolysis of IL-1R1, TLR4 and TNFR1. Using dynasore an inhibitor of clathrin-dependent receptor endocytosis, both ectodomain shedding and γ-secretase-mediated cleavage of IL-1R1 were observed post-internalization. In contrast, TNFR-1 underwent ectodomain shedding at the cell surface followed by endosomal γ-secretase-mediated cleavage. Furthermore, immortalised fibroblasts from PS1-deficient mice showed impaired γ-secretasemediated cleavage of IL-1R1 and TNFR1, indicating that both are cleaved by PS1-and not PS2-containing γ-secretase complexes. Subcellular fractionation and immunofluorescence studies revealed that the γ-secretase generated IL-1R1 ICD translocates to the nucleus on IL-1β stimulation. These observations further demonstrate the novel PS-dependent means of modulating IL-1β, LPS and TNFα- mediated immune responses by regulating IL-1R1/TLR4/TNFR1 protein levels within the cells.
IL-1R1 , TNFR1 , TLR4 , Presenilin , Regulated intramembrane proteolysis
Chhibber, J. 2013. Identification and characterization of innate immune receptor substrates of γ-secretase enzyme complex. PhD Thesis, University College Cork.