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Supercritical carbon dioxide versus toluene as reaction media in silica functionalisation: Synthesis and characterisation of bonded aminopropyl silica intermediate
Ashu-Arrah, Benjamin A.
Glennon, Jeremy D.
This research reports supercritical carbon dioxide versus toluene as reaction media in silica functionalisation for use in liquid chromatography. Bonded aminopropyl silica (APS) intermediates were prepared when porous silica particles (Exsil-pure, 3 μm) were reacted with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (3-APTES) or N,N-dimethylaminopropyltrimethoxysilane (DMAPTMS) using supercritical carbon dioxide (sc-CO2) and toluene as reaction media. Covalent bonding to silica was confirmed using elemental microanalysis (CHN), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), zeta potential (ξ), diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (CP/MAS NMR) spectroscopy. The results demonstrate that under sc-CO2 conditions of 100 °C/414 bar in a substantial reduced time of 3 h, the surface coverage of APS (evaluated from%C obtained from elemental analysis) prepared with APTES (%C: 8.03, 5.26 μmol/m−2) or DMAPTES (%C: 5.12, 4.58 μmol/m2) is somewhat higher when compared to organic based reactions under reflux in toluene at a temperature of 110 °C in 24 h with APTES (%C: 7.33, 4.71 μmol/m2) and DMAPTMS (%C: 4.93, 4.38 μmol/m2). Zeta potential measurements revealed a change in electrostatic surface charge from negative values for bare Exsil-pure silica to positive for functionalised APS materials indicating successful immobilization of the aminosilane onto the surface of silica.
Chemical functionalisation , Supercritical CO2 , Aminopropyl bonded silica (APS) , Bi-functional bonding , Surface coverage/conversion efficiency
Ashu-Arrah, B. A. and Glennon, J. D. (2017) 'Supercritical carbon dioxide versus toluene as reaction media in silica functionalisation: Synthesis and characterisation of bonded aminopropyl silica intermediate', Journal of Chromatography A, 1501, pp. 18-25. doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2017.04.030