Sub-GHz wrist-worn antennas for wireless sensing applications: A review

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Kumar, Sanjeev
Moloudian, Gholamhosein
Simorangkir, Roy B. V. B.
Gawade, Dinesh R.
O’Flynn, Brendan
Buckley, John L.
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Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
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With recent advances in wearable wrist-worn wireless sensing applications, the demand for smartwatches and wristbands is rapidly increasing due to their widespread adoption in applications such as smart health monitoring, security, and fitness tracking. Currently, these devices primarily operate in the 2.45 GHz band, leveraging the availability of Bluetooth and Wi-Fi wireless technologies. However, the use of Sub-GHz frequencies (e.g., 433 MHz, 868 MHz, 915 MHz, 923 MHz) for wearable systems has also gained interest due to the emergence of wireless technologies like long-range wide area network (LoRaWAN), narrowband-IoT (NB-IoT) and Sigfox, which offer the potential for long-range wireless communications and sensing applications. In recent times, there has been a notable surge in the commercial production of a variety of Sub-GHz wrist-worn wireless sensing devices for health monitoring and tracking applications. Nevertheless, communications at Sub-GHz frequencies present significant challenges in antenna design, primarily due to the practical size constraints of wrist-worn devices and the necessity for using electrically small antennas. This paper meticulously reviews wrist-worn Sub-GHz antennas reported in the literature, analyzing key antenna parameters such as antenna topology, size, impedance bandwidth, peak realized gain, radiation efficiency, and specific absorption rate (SAR). Additionally, it underlines antenna design challenges, limitations, current trends, and presents potential future perspectives. To the best of the author’s knowledge, there is currently no existing literature comprehensively reviewing Sub-GHz wrist-worn antennas. Therefore, this paper represents the inaugural effort to provide a comprehensive review in this specific domain.
Wireless sensing , Wrist-worn , Wristwear , Wearable antenna , Sub-GHz , LoRaWAN , NB-IoT , Sigfox , Smartwatch antenna , Wristband
Kumar, S., Moloudian, G., Simorangkir, R. B. V. B., Gawade, D. R., O’Flynn, B. and Buckley, J. L. (2024)'Sub-GHz wrist-worn antennas for wireless sensing applications: A review', IEEE Open Journal of Antennas and Propagation.
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