Sugar matrices in stabilization of bioactives by dehydration
University College Cork
Development of functional foods with bioactive components requires component stability in foods and ingredients. Stabilization of sensitive bioactive components can be achieved by entrapment or encapsulation of these components in solid food matrices. Lactose or trehalose was used as the structure-forming material for the entrapment of hydrophilic ascorbic acid and thiamine hydrochloride or the encapsulation of oil particles containing hydrophobic α-tocopherol. In the delivery of hydrophobic components, milk protein isolate, soy protein isolate, or whey protein isolate were used as emulsifiers and, in some cases, applied in excess amount to form matrices together with sugars. Dehydrated amorphous structures with bioactives were produced by freezing and freeze-drying. Experimental results indicated that: (i) lactose and trehalose showed similar water sorption and glass transition but very different crystallization behavior as pure sugars; (ii) the glass transition of sugar-based systems was slightly affected by the presence of other components in anhydrous systems but followed closely that of sugar after water plasticization; (iii) sugar crystallization in mixture systems was composition-dependent; (iv) the stability of bioactives was better retained in the amorphous matrices, although small losses of stability were observed for hydrophilic components above glass transition and for hydrophobic components as a function of water activity; (v) sugar crystallization caused significant loss of hydrophilic bioactives as a result of the exclusion from the continuous crystalline phase; (vi) loss of hydrophobic bioactives upon sugar crystallization was a result of dramatic change of emulsion properties and the exclusion of oil particles from the protecting structure; (vii) the double layers at the hydrophilic-hydrophobic interfaces improved the stability of hydrophobic bioactives in dehydrated systems. The present study provides information on the physical and chemical stability of sugar-based dehydrated delivery systems, which could be helpful in designing foods and ingredients containing bioactive components with improved storage stability.
Sugar , Bioactives , Freeze-drying , Stability , Emulsion
Zhou, Y. 2013. Sugar matrices in stabilization of bioactives by dehydration. PhD Thesis, University College Cork.