Lab-on-a-chip electrochemical immunosensor array integrated with microfluidics: development and characterisation

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Felemban, Shifa Jameel
Vazquez, Patricia
Balbaied, Thanih
Moore, Eric
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Lab-on-a-chip has recently become an alternative for in situ monitoring for its portability and simple integration with an electrochemical immunoassay. Here, we present an electrochemical cell-on-a-chip configured in a three-electrode system to detect benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in water. 11-Mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA), a self-assembled monolayer (SAM), was used to modify a gold chip surface to reduce the randomness of antibody binding. A carboxylic acid group was activated with -ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) (EDC) in combination with N-hyrodsuccinimide (NHS) before antibody immobilisation. The mechanism of the electrochemical reactions on a gold surface and SAM formation were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and contact angle measurements. The data revealed a lower contact angle in the modified chip and a scan rate of 50 mV/s. Through the addition of modification layers and thiol end groups to the SAM, our design allowed the chip surface to became more insulated. All were tested by amperometric detection using the developed Q-sense system. This novel technique detected multiple samples, and completed the analysis reasonably quickly. While the integrated system proved successful in a lab setting, the aim of the research is to use this system for in situ analysis, which can be brought into a water environment to carry out tests with existing processes. In this way, any issues that may arise from an environmental setting can be rectified in an efficient manner.
Microfluidics , Lab on a chip , Integration system , Electrochemical immunoassay , Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)
Felemban, S., Vazquez, P., Balbaied, T. and Moore, E. (2022) ‘Lab-on-a-chip electrochemical immunosensor array integrated with microfluidics: development and characterisation’, Electrochem, 3(4), pp. 570–580. doi: 10.3390/electrochem3040039