Nanostructured ferroelectric materials
Varghese, Justin M.
University College Cork
Nanostructured materials are central to the evolution of future electronics and information technologies. Ferroelectrics have already been established as a dominant branch in the electronics sector because of their diverse application range such as ferroelectric memories, ferroelectric tunnel junctions, etc. The on-going dimensional downscaling of materials to allow packing of increased numbers of components onto integrated circuits provides the momentum for the evolution of nanostructured ferroelectric materials and devices. Nanoscaling of ferroelectric materials can result in a modification of their functionality, such as phase transition temperature or Curie temperature (TC), domain dynamics, dielectric constant, coercive field, spontaneous polarisation and piezoelectric response. Furthermore, nanoscaling can be used to form high density arrays of monodomain ferroelectric nanostructures, which is desirable for the miniaturisation of memory devices. This thesis details the use of various types of nanostructuring approaches to fabricate arrays of ferroelectric nanostructures, particularly non-oxide based systems. The introductory chapter reviews some exemplary research breakthroughs in the synthesis, characterisation and applications of nanoscale ferroelectric materials over the last decade, with priority given to novel synthetic strategies. Chapter 2 provides an overview of the experimental methods and characterisation tools used to produce and probe the properties of nanostructured antimony sulphide (Sb2S3), antimony sulpho iodide (SbSI) and lead titanate zirconate (PZT). In particular, Chapter 2 details the general principles of piezoresponse microscopy (PFM). Chapter 3 highlights the fabrication of arrays of Sb2S3 nanowires with variable diameters using newly developed solventless template-based approach. A detailed account of domain imaging and polarisation switching of these nanowire arrays is also provided. Chapter 4 details the preparation of vertically aligned arrays of SbSI nanorods and nanowires using a surface-roughness assisted vapour-phase deposition method. The qualitative and quantitative nanoscale ferroelectric properties of these nanostructures are also discussed. Chapter 5 highlights the fabrication of highly ordered arrays of PZT nanodots using block copolymer self-assembled templates and their ferroelectric characterisation using PFM. Chapter 6 summarises the conclusions drawn from the results reported in chapters 3, 4 and 5 and the future work.
Ferroelectric , Nanostructured , PFM , Template , AAD
Varghese, J. D. 2012. Nanostructured ferroelectric materials. PhD Thesis, University College Cork.