Rechargeable Li-ion battery anode of indium oxide with visible to infra-red transparency

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Osiak, Michal J.
Khunsin, Worawut
Armstrong, Eileen
Kennedy, Tadhg
Sotomayor Torres, Clivia M.
Ryan, Kevin M.
O'Dwyer, Colm
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Unique bimodal distributions of single crystal epitaxially grown In2O3 nanodots on silicon are shown to have excellent IR transparency greater than 87% at 4 μm without sacrificing transparency in the visible region. These broadband antireflective nanodot dispersions are grown using a two-step metal deposition and oxidation by molecular beam epitaxy, and backscattered diffraction confirms a dominant (111) surface orientation. We detail the growth of a bimodal size distribution that facilitates good surface coverage (80%) while allowing a significant reduction in In2O3 refractive index. The (111) surface orientation of the nanodots, when fully ripened, allows minimum lattice mismatch strain between the In2O3 and the Si surface. This helps to circumvent potential interfacial weakening caused by volume contraction due to electrochemical reduction to lithium, or expansion during lithiation. Cycling under potentiodynamic conditions shows that the transparent anode of nanodots reversibly alloys lithium with good Coulombic efficiency, buffered by co-insertion into the silicon substrate. These properties could potentially lead to further development of similarly controlled dispersions of a range of other active materials to give transparent battery electrodes or materials capable of non-destructive in-situ spectroscopic characterization during charging and discharging.
Dispersions , Charging (batteries) , Electrolytic reduction , Epitaxial growth , Indium , Lithium , Lithium alloys , Molecular beam epitaxy , Refractive index , Silicon wafers , Surfaces , Transparency
Osiak, M., Khunsin, W., Armstrong, E., Kennedy, T., Sotomayor Torres, C. M., Ryan, K. M. and O'Dwyer, C. (2013) 'Rechargeable Li-Ion Battery Anode of Indium Oxide with Visible to Infra-Red Transparency', ECS Transactions, 53(6), pp. 53-61. doi: 10.1149/05306.0053ecst
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