Synthesis and reactivity of alpha-thio-beta-chloroacrylamides and alpha-thio-beta-chloroenones

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Murphy, Linda.
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University College Cork
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Development of novel synthetic methodology for selective transformation of organic compounds is a central element underpinning organic synthesis with control of chemo-, regio- and stereoselectivity a very high priority. Reactions which can be conducted under mild reaction conditions and, ideally in an environmentally attractive manner, are particularly advantageous. The principal objective of this thesis was to explore the synthesis, reactivity and synthetic utility of a series of α,β-thio-β-chloroenones. The stereochemical features of these transformations and the potential of this novel series of compounds in the synthesis of bioactive compounds were of particular interest. In exploring the reactivity of these compounds, the key transformations included nucleophilic additions and Stille cross-coupling at the β-carbon. Chapter 1 reviews the literature relevant to the research conducted, and focuses in particular on the synthesis of β-chloroenones and related unsaturated carbonyl compounds. The synthesis of chalcone compounds from various precursors is also discussed, with particular emphasis on the use of palladium cross-coupling reactions in the preparation of these compounds. The biological activity of chalcones is also summarised in this chapter. The second chapter delineates the stereoselective synthesis of the novel α-thio-β-chloroenones from the corresponding α-thioketones in a multistep reaction cascade initiated by a NCS-mediated chlorination. A range of both alkyl and aryl β-chloroenones were prepared in this work and the oxidation of these compounds to the corresponding sulfoxides and sulfones is also outlined. The electrophilicity of the β-carbon of the enones was examined in nucleophilic addition/substitution reactions with successful access to a variety of synthetically useful novel adducts including acetals and enaminoketones. Investigation of the synthetic potential of the Stille cross-coupling reaction with the novel α-thio-β-chloroenones was explored and provided an efficient route for the synthesis of a novel series of chalcones. Most importantly this new methodology provided a new and synthetically powerful approach for carbon-carbon bond formation at the β-carbon under mild neutral conditions. A preliminary investigation into the use of these β-chloroenones as dienophiles in Diels-Alder cycloaddition reactions is also discussed in this chapter. Chapter 2 also reports the nucleophilic addition of N, O, S and C nucleophiles to previously described β-chloroacrylamides and their corresponding sulfoxide derivatives. This work builds on previous research carried out in this programme and the reactivity of these β-chloroacrylamides at the sulfide and sulfoxide level is compared. Comparison of the reactivity of the β-chloroacrylamides, in nucleophilic substitution and Stille-coupling, with that of the novel β-chloroenones is of interest. Finally, the biological activity of both the β-chloroenones and the β-chloroacrylamides in terms of cytotoxicity is summarised in Chapter 2. The final chapter, Chapter 3, details the full experimental procedures, including spectroscopic and analytical data for the compounds prepared during this research.
Amides , Ketones , Sulfides , Sulfoxides , Chalcones , Palladium catalysis , Chlorination reaction , Stille reaction
Murphy, L. 2013. Synthesis and reactivity of alpha-thio-beta-chloroacrylamides and alpha-thio-beta-chloroenones. PhD Thesis, University College Cork.