Nutrition, growth and body composition in infancy

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Ní Chaoimh, Carol E.
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University College Cork
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This thesis is presented in two parts. Data for this research is from the Cork BASELINE (Babies after SCOPE, Evaluating Longitudinal Impact using Neurological and Nutritional Endpoints) Birth Cohort Study (n = 2137). In this prospective birth cohort study, pediatric follow-up with in-person appointments were repeated from the time of birth through to 2, 6 and 12 months, and at 2 years. Body composition was measured by air displacement plethysmography at birth and at 2 months using the PEA POD Infant Body Composition Tracking System. This thesis provides the first extensive report on the study’s 2 year assessment. In part one, the aims were to investigate potential early-life risk factors for childhood overweight and obesity, including rapid growth and body composition in infancy and umbilical cord concentrations of leptin and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin. This research is the first to describe rapid growth in early infancy in terms of changes in direct measures of body composition. These are also the first data to examine associations between umbilical cord leptin and HMW adiponectin concentrations and changes in fat and lean mass in early infancy. These data provide additional insight into characterising the growth trajectory in infancy and into the role of perinatal factors in determining infant growth and subsequent overweight/obesity risk. In part two of this thesis, the aims were to quantify vitamin D intake and status at 2 years and to investigate whether 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations in early pregnancy and in umbilical cord blood are associated with infant growth and body composition. There was a low prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among Irish 2 year olds (n = 742) despite a high prevalence of inadequate intakes and high latitude (51°N). Maternal 25(OH)D concentrations at 15 weeks gestation and cord 25(OH)D concentrations at delivery were not associated with infant growth or adiposity.
Infancy , Growth , Body composition , Weight gain , Obesity , Leptin , Adiponectin , Vitamin D
Ní Chaoimh, C. E. 2015. Nutrition, growth and body composition in infancy. PhD Thesis, University College Cork.
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