Cocrystallization of organic compounds

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Huang, Shan
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University College Cork
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This thesis discusses the synthesis, characterization, and properties of multi-component crystalline materials of active pharmaceutical ingredients. A special emphasis is placed on cocrystallization, which is the supramolecular phenomenon of aggregation of two or more different chemical entities in a crystalline lattice through non-covalent interactions. This research has been divided into seven chapters. Chapter 1 gives an overview of the concept of multi-component crystalline materials and cocrystallization, where the design, methodology, characterization and application of cocrystals are also included. Chapter 2 discusses the synthesis of multi-component crystal forms of a sulfonamide compound, sulfasalazine, through cocrystallization and explores the crystal structure landscape of sulfasalazine. Furthermore, the differences are illustrated between cocrystals and salts of sulfasalazine via structural analysis, Hirshfeld surface analysis and frontier molecular orbitals analysis. Chapter 3 investigates the hydrogen bonding interactions in cocrystals of a frequently used sulfonamide compound, sulfaguanidine, by both experimental methods and theoretical calculations including the analysis of Hirshfeld surface, molecular electrostatic potential surfaces and quantum theory of atoms in molecules. Chapter 4 focuses on pharmaceutical salts of piroxicam and meloxicam with three basic organic counterions, respectively. The solubility of six salts and two parent drugs in sodium phosphate solution were conducted. Furthermore, piroxicam and its salts exhibited different luminescent properties, thus, the different luminescent mechanisms were discussed. Chapter 5 explores cocrystallization of 19 natural L-amino acids and both enantiomers of four pharmaceutically relevant chiral compounds. The formation of diastereomeric or enantiospecific systems were explored using an examination of their hydrogen bonding motifs. Chapter 6 investigates the formation of diastereomeric cocrystal pairs of S mandelamide with both enantiomers of mandelic acid and proline, respectively. In addition, the crystal structures of (±)-mandelamide, S-mandelamide and enantio-enriched mandelamide (94 S:6 R) were determined. Detailed crystal structural analyses together with Hirshfeld surface analysis were carried out. Chapter 7 summarizes the main findings of the entire work and examines future work, such as the use of ternary phase diagrams to assist in developing chiral separation processes.
Cocrystallization , Crystal engineering , Solid-state characterization
Huang, S. 2023. Cocrystallization of organic compounds. PhD Thesis, University College Cork.