Exploring the cardiovascular disease continuum: blood pressure and target organ damage
O'Flynn, Anne Marie
University College Cork
Introduction The objectives of this thesis are to: (1) examine how ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) refines office blood pressure (BP) measurement; (2) determine if absolute ambulatory BP or dipping status is better associated with target organ damage (TOD); (3) explore the association of isolated nocturnal hypertension (INH) with TOD; and (4) investigate the association of night-time BP with ultrasound markers of cardiovascular damage. Methods Data from the Mitchelstown Cohort Study was analysed to deliver objectives 1 and 2. Objective 3 was addressed by a systematic review and analysis of data from the Mitchelstown Study. A sample of participants from the Mitchelstown Study underwent an echocardiogram for speckle tracking analysis and carotid ultrasound to achieve objective 4. Results ABPM reclassifies hypertension status in approximately a quarter of individuals, with white coat and masked hypertension prevalence rates of 11% and 13% respectively. Night-time systolic BP is better associated with TOD than daytime systolic BP and dipping level. In multi-variable models the odds ratio (OR) for LVH was 1.4 (95% CI 1.1 -1.8) and for albumin:creatinine ratio ≥ 1.1 mg/mmol was 1.5 (95% CI 1.2 – 1.8) for each 10 mmHg rise in night-time systolic BP. The evidence for the association of INH with TOD is inconclusive. Night-time systolic BP is significantly associated with global longitudinal strain (GLS) (beta coefficient 0.85 for every 10 mmHg rise, 95% CI 0.3 – 1.4) and carotid plaques (OR 1.9 for every 10 mmHg rise, 95% CI 1.1 – 3.2) in univariable analysis. The findings persist for GLS in sex and age adjusted models but not in multivariable models. Discussion Hypertension cannot be effectively managed without using ABPM. Night-time systolic BP is better associated with TOD than daytime systolic BP and dipping level, and therefore, may be a better therapeutic target in future studies.
Hypertension , Target organ damage , Cardiovascular diseases , Blood pressure , Blood pressure monitoring , Ambulatory , Circadian rhythm , Risk factors
O'Flynn, A. M. 2016. Exploring the cardiovascular disease continuum: blood pressure and target organ damage. PhD Thesis, University College Cork.