Development and validation of the Spirituality Instrument-27© (SpI-27©) in individuals with chronic illness

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Weathers, Elizabeth
Coffey, Alice
McSherry, Wilfred
McCarthy, Geraldine
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Elsevier Inc.
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Aim: To develop and validate the Spirituality Instrument 27 (SpI-27©) in individuals with chronic illness (n = 249). Background: A need for a rigorously developed spirituality instrument that can be used with people who are religious and non-religious was identified. Methods: The initial 46-item instrument was developed from a concept analysis, a review of theoretical and empirical literature, and an appraisal of instruments measuring spirituality. Content validity was established with user focus groups and an expert panel review. A pilot study evaluated the online mode of administration and a descriptive correlational design assessed the reliability and validity of the instrument. Results: Results of exploratory factor analysis concluded a five-factor solution with 27 items: Connectedness with Others, Self-Transcendence, Self-Cognisance, Conservationism, and Connectedness with a Higher Power. Cronbach's alpha coefficients ranged from 0.823 to 0.911 for the five factors, and 0.904 for the overall scale. Paired t-tests, intra-class correlations, and weighted kappa values supported the temporal stability of the instrument. A significant and positive correlation was found between the SpI-27© and the Spirituality Index of Well-Being (p < 0.01), supporting convergent validity. Conclusions: Findings support the validity and reliability of the SpI-27©, which was developed with patient input and is underpinned by theoretical and empirical literature. The SpI-27© should be validated for use with other samples. The conceptual framework that guided the study can be used to enhance healthcare professionals' understanding of spirituality and its core dimensions.
Chronic illness , Instrument , Mixed methods , Spirituality , Theoretical
Weathers, E., Coffey, A., McSherry, W. and McCarthy, G. (2020) 'Development and validation of the Spirituality Instrument-27© (SpI-27©) in individuals with chronic illness', Applied Nursing Research. doi: 10.1016/j.apnr.2020.151331