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- ItemAssociations between the nutrient profiling system underlying the nutri-score nutrition label and biomarkers of chronic low-grade inflammation: a cross-sectional analysis of a middle- to older-aged population(MDPI, 2022) Millar, Seán R.; Navarro, Pilar; Harrington, Janas M.; Perry, Ivan J.; Phillips, Catherine M.; Health Research BoardLow-grade systemic inflammation is associated with a range of conditions. Diet may modulate inflammation and public health strategies are needed to guide consumers' dietary choices and help prevent diet-related disease. The Food Standards Agency nutrient profiling system (FSAm-NPS) constitutes the basis of the five-colour front-of-pack Nutri-Score labelling system. No study to date has examined FSAm-NPS dietary index associations with biomarkers of inflammation. Therefore, our objective was to test relationships between the FSAm-NPS and a range of inflammatory biomarkers in a cross-sectional sample of 2006 men and women aged 46-73 years. Individual participant FSAm-NPS scores were derived from food frequency questionnaires. Pro-inflammatory cytokine, adipocytokine, acute-phase response protein, coagulation factor and white blood cell count concentrations were determined. Correlation and linear regression analyses were used to examine FSAm-NPS relationships with biomarker levels. In crude and adjusted analyses, higher FSAm-NPS scores, reflecting poorer nutritional quality, were consistently and positively associated with biomarkers. In fully adjusted models, significant associations with concentrations of complement component 3, c-reactive protein, interleukin 6, tumour necrosis factor alpha, resistin, white blood cell count, neutrophils, eosinophils and the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio persisted. These results suggest that dietary quality, determined by Nutri-Score rating, is associated with inflammatory biomarkers related to health.
- ItemCan existing mobile apps support healthier food purchasing behaviour? Content analysis of nutrition content, behaviour change theory and user quality integration(Cambridge University Press, 2017-10-30) Flaherty, Sarah Jane; McCarthy, Mary; Collins, Alan; McAuliffe, Fionnuala; Health Research BoardTo assess the quality of nutrition content and the integration of user quality components and behaviour change theory relevant to food purchasing behaviour in a sample of existing mobile apps. Descriptive comparative analysis of eleven mobile apps comprising an assessment of their alignment with existing evidence on nutrition, behaviour change and user quality, and their potential ability to support healthier food purchasing behaviour. Mobile apps freely available for public use in GoogePlay were assessed and scored according to agreed criteria to assess nutrition content quality and integration of behaviour change theory and user quality components. A sample of eleven mobile apps that met predefined inclusion criteria to ensure relevance and good quality. The quality of the nutrition content varied. Improvements to the accuracy and appropriateness of nutrition content are needed to ensure mobile apps support a healthy behaviour change process and are accessible to a wider population. There appears to be a narrow focus towards behaviour change with an overemphasis on behavioural outcomes and a small number of behaviour change techniques, which may limit effectiveness. A significant effort from the user was required to use the mobile apps appropriately which may negatively influence user acceptability and subsequent utilisation. Existing mobile apps may offer a potentially effective approach to supporting healthier food purchasing behaviour but improvements in mobile app design are required to maximise their potential effectiveness. Engagement of mobile app users and nutrition professionals is recommended to support effective design.
- ItemComparing dietary score associations with lipoprotein particle subclass profiles: a cross-sectional analysis of a middle-to older-aged population(Elsevier, 2021-06) Millar, Seán R.; Navarro, Pilar; Harrington, Janas M.; Shivappa, Nitin; Hébert, James R.; Perry, Ivan J.; Phillips, Catherine M.; Health Research Board; Breakthrough Cancer ResearchBackground and objectives: Lipoprotein particle concentrations and size are associated with increased risk for atherosclerosis and premature cardiovascular disease. Studies also suggest that certain dietary behaviours may be cardioprotective. Limited comparative data regarding any dietary score/index-lipoprotein particle subclass associations exist. Thus, our objective was to assess relationships between the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), Health Eating Index-2015 (HEI-2015), Mediterranean Diet (MD) and Energy-adjusted Dietary Inflammatory Index (E-DII™) scores and plasma lipids and lipoprotein profiles to test the hypothesis that healthier diet (better quality and more anti-inflammatory) would be associated with a more favourable lipoprotein profile. Materials and methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 1862 men and women aged 46–73 years, randomly selected from a large primary care centre in Ireland. DASH, HEI-2015, MD and E-DII scores were derived from food frequency questionnaires. Lipoprotein subclass particle concentrations and size were determined using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Correlation and multivariate-adjusted linear regression analyses with correction for multiple testing were performed to examine dietary score relationships with lipoprotein particle subclasses. Results: In fully adjusted models, higher diet quality or a more anti-inflammatory diet was associated with less large and medium very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) (DASH and HEI-2015), intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL) (DASH, MD and E-DII) and small high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (DASH, HEI-2015 and E-DII) particles. After accounting for multiple testing, relationships with large VLDL (DASH: β = -0.102, p = .037), IDL (DASH: β = -0.089, p = .037) and small HDL (DASH: β = -0.551, p = .014 and E-DII: β = 0.483, p = .019) concentrations persisted. Conclusions: These findings provide evidence that better diet quality, determined by the DASH score, may be more closely associated with a more favourable lipoprotein particle subclass profile in middle-to older-aged adults than the HEI-2015, MD and E-DII scores. A less pro-atherogenic lipoprotein status may be a potential mechanism underlying the cardioprotective effects of higher dietary quality.
- ItemComparison of diabetes risk score estimates and cardiometabolic risk profiles in a middle-aged Irish population(Public Library of Science, 2013) Phillips, Catherine M.; Kearney, Patricia M.; McCarthy, Vera J. C.; Harrington, Janas M.; Fitzgerald, Anthony P.; Perry, Ivan J.; Health Research BoardBackground: To compare diabetes risk assessment tools in estimating risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and to evaluate cardiometabolic risk profiles in a middle-aged Irish population. Methods: Future risk of developing T2DM was estimated using 7 risk scores, including clinical measures with or without anthropometric, biological and lifestyle data, in the cross-sectional Mitchelstown cohort of 2,047 middle-aged men and women. Cardiometabolic phenotypes including markers of glucose metabolism, inflammatory and lipid profiles were determined. Results: Estimates of subjects at risk for developing T2DM varied considerably according to the risk assessment tool used (0.3% to 20%), with higher proportions of males at risk (0-29.2% vs. 0.1-13.4%, for men and women, respectively). Extrapolated to the Irish population of similar age, the overall number of adults at high risk of developing T2DM ranges from 3,378 to 236,632. Numbers of non-optimal metabolic features were generally greater among those at high risk of developing T2DM. However, cardiometabolic profile characterisation revealed that only those classified at high risk by the Griffin (UK Cambridge) score displayed a more pro-inflammatory, obese, hypertensive, dysglycaemic and insulin resistant metabolic phenotype. Conclusions: Most diabetes risk scores examined offer limited ability to identify subjects with metabolic abnormalities and at risk of developing T2DM. Our results highlight the need to validate diabetes risk scoring tools for each population studied and the potential for developing an Irish diabetes risk score, which may help to promote self awareness and identify high risk individuals and diabetes hot spots for targeted public health interventions.
- ItemDefining metabolically healthy obesity: role of dietary and lifestyle factors(Public Library of Science, 2013-10-17) Phillips, Catherine M.; Dillon, Christina B.; Harrington, Janas M.; McCarthy, Vera J. C.; Kearney, Patricia M.; Fitzgerald, Anthony P.; Perry, Ivan J.; Health Research BoardBackground: There is a current lack of consensus on defining metabolically healthy obesity (MHO). Limited data on dietary and lifestyle factors and MHO exist. The aim of this study is to compare the prevalence, dietary factors and lifestyle behaviours of metabolically healthy and unhealthy obese and non-obese subjects according to different metabolic health criteria. Method: Cross-sectional sample of 1,008 men and 1,039 women aged 45-74 years participated in the study. Participants were classified as obese (BMI ≥30kg/m2) and non-obese (BMI <30kg/m2). Metabolic health status was defined using five existing MH definitions based on a range of cardiometabolic abnormalities. Dietary composition and quality, food pyramid servings, physical activity, alcohol and smoking behaviours were examined. Results: The prevalence of MHO varied considerably between definitions (2.2% to 11.9%), was higher among females and generally increased with age. Agreement between MHO classifications was poor. Among the obese, prevalence of MH was 6.8% to 36.6%. Among the non-obese, prevalence of metabolically unhealthy subjects was 21.8% to 87%. Calorie intake, dietary macronutrient composition, physical activity, alcohol and smoking behaviours were similar between the metabolically healthy and unhealthy regardless of BMI. Greater compliance with food pyramid recommendations and higher dietary quality were positively associated with metabolic health in obese (OR 1.45-1.53 unadjusted model) and non-obese subjects (OR 1.37-1.39 unadjusted model), respectively. Physical activity was associated with MHO defined by insulin resistance (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.19-2.92, p = 0.006).
- ItemDietary inflammatory index and biomarkers of lipoprotein metabolism, inflammation and glucose homeostasis in adults(MDPI, 2018-08-08) Phillips, Catherine M.; Shivappa, Nitin; Hébert, James R.; Perry, Ivan J.; Health Research Board; Irish Heart Foundation; National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney DiseasesAccumulating evidence identifies diet and inflammation as potential mechanisms contributing to cardiometabolic risk. However, inconsistent reports regarding dietary inflammatory potential, biomarkers of cardiometabolic health and metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk exist. Our objective was to examine the relationships between a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ)-derived dietary inflammatory index (DII®), biomarkers of lipoprotein metabolism, inflammation and glucose homeostasis and MetS risk in a cross-sectional sample of 1992 adults. Energy-adjusted DII (E-DII) scores derived from an FFQ were calculated. Lipoprotein particle size and subclass concentrations were measured using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Serum acute-phase reactants, adipocytokines, pro-inflammatory cytokines and white blood cell (WBC) counts were determined. Insulin resistance was calculated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). Our data indicate that a more pro-inflammatory diet, reflected by higher E-DII scores, was associated with potentially pro-atherogenic lipoprotein profiles characterised by increased numbers of large very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), small dense low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) particles and less large LDL and HDL particles (all p < 0.001). Inflammatory profiling identified a range of adverse phenotypes among those with higher E-DII scores, including higher complement component C3 (C3), C-reactive protein (CRP), (both p < 0.05), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α concentrations, higher WBC counts and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and lower adiponectin levels (all p < 0.001). MetS risk was increased among those with higher E-DII scores (OR 1.37, 95% CI (1.01, 1.88), p < 0.05), after adjusting for potential confounders. In conclusion, habitual intake of a more pro-inflammatory diet is associated with unfavourable lipoprotein and inflammatory profiles and increased MetS risk.
- ItemDietary inflammatory index and non-communicable disease risk: A narrative review(MDPI, 2019-08-12) Phillips, Catherine M.; Chen, Ling-Wei; Heude, Barbara; Bernard, Jonathan Y.; Harvey, Nicholas C.; Duijts, Liesbeth; Mensink-Bout, Sara M.; Polanska, Kinga; Mancano, Giulia; Suderman, Matthew; Shivappa, Nitin; Hébert, James R.; Horizon 2020; Science Foundation Ireland; Polish National Centre for Research and Development; ZonMw; Health Research Board; Agence Nationale de la RechercheThere are over 1,000,000 publications on diet and health and over 480,000 references on inflammation in the National Library of Medicine database. In addition, there have now been over 30,000 peer-reviewed articles published on the relationship between diet, inflammation, and health outcomes. Based on this voluminous literature, it is now recognized that low-grade, chronic systemic inflammation is associated with most non-communicable diseases (NCDs), including diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease, cancers, respiratory and musculoskeletal disorders, as well as impaired neurodevelopment and adverse mental health outcomes. Dietary components modulate inflammatory status. In recent years, the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®), a literature-derived dietary index, was developed to characterize the inflammatory potential of habitual diet. Subsequently, a large and rapidly growing body of research investigating associations between dietary inflammatory potential, determined by the DII, and risk of a wide range of NCDs has emerged. In this narrative review, we examine the current state of the science regarding relationships between the DII and cancer, cardiometabolic, respiratory and musculoskeletal diseases, neurodevelopment, and adverse mental health outcomes. We synthesize the findings from recent studies, discuss potential underlying mechanisms, and look to the future regarding novel applications of the adult and children’s DII (C-DII) scores and new avenues of investigation in this field of nutritional research.
- ItemDietary quality determined by the Healthy Eating Index-2015 and biomarkers of chronic low-grade inflammation: a cross-sectional analysis in middle-to-older aged adults(MDPI, 2021-01) Millar, Seán R.; Navarro, Pilar; Harrington, Janas M.; Perry, Ivan J.; Phillips, Catherine M.; Health Research Board; Breakthrough Cancer ResearchLow-grade systemic inflammation is associated with a range of chronic diseases. Diet may modulate inflammation and represents a promising therapeutic target to reduce metabolic dysfunction. To date, no study has examined Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI-2015) diet score associations with biomarkers of inflammation. Thus, our objective was to assess relationships between the HEI-2015 score and a range of inflammatory biomarkers in a cross-sectional sample of 1989 men and women aged 46-73 years, to test the hypothesis that better dietary quality would be associated with more favourable circulating levels of inflammatory biomarkers. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, adipocytokines, acute-phase response proteins, coagulation factors and white blood cell counts were determined. Correlation and linear regression analyses were used to test HEI-2015 diet score relationships with biomarker concentrations. Higher dietary quality as determined by the HEI-2015 was associated with lower c-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin 6 concentrations, white blood cell (WBC) counts and its constituents, adjusting for sex and age. Associations with CRP concentrations and WBC counts persisted in the fully adjusted models. No associations with complement component 3, tumour necrosis factor alpha, adiponectin, leptin, resistin or plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels were identified. Our data suggest that dietary quality, determined by the HEI-2015 score, in middle-to-older aged adults is associated with inflammatory biomarkers related to cardiometabolic health.
- ItemDoes replacing sedentary behaviour with light or moderate to vigorous physical activity modulate inflammatory status in adults?(BioMed Central, 2017-10-11) Phillips, Catherine M.; Dillon, Christina B.; Perry, Ivan J.; Health Research BoardBackground: Sedentary behaviour, obesity and insulin resistance are associated with pro-inflammatory status. Limited data on whether physical activity modulates inflammatory status and counteracts obesity and insulin resistance associated low-grade inflammation exist. Our objective was to investigate associations between objectively measured physical activity and inflammatory status, and specifically whether substituting daily sedentary behaviour with light activity or moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), is associated with beneficial alterations to the inflammatory profile among middle-aged adults and those at increased cardiometabolic risk (obese and insulin resistant subjects). Methods: Data are from a sub-sample of the Mitchelstown cohort; a population-based cross-sectional sample of 2047 Irish adults. Physical activity intensity and duration were measured in 396 participants for 7-consecutive days using the GENEActiv accelerometer. Isotemporal regression analysis examined the associations between replacing 30 min per day of sedentary behaviour with equal amounts of light activity and MVPA on inflammatory factors (serum acute-phase reactants, adipocytokines, pro-inflammatory cytokines and white blood cells (WBC)). Results: Reallocating 30 min of sedentary time with MVPA was associated with a more favourable inflammatory profile characterized by higher adiponectin and lower complement component C3 (C3), leptin, interleukin 6 (IL-6) and WBC concentrations (P < 0.05). No significant effects were noted with substitution of sedentary time with light activity. Among the obese subjects replacing sedentary behaviour with an equivalent amount of MVPA was associated with lower WBC counts (P < 0.05); no associations were detected among the insulin resistant (HOMA-IR >75th percentile) subjects. Among the non-obese and non-insulin resistant subjects substituting 30 min of sedentary behaviour with MVPA was associated with decreased C3, IL-6 and WBC concentrations. Conclusions: Replacing sedentary behaviour with MVPA modulates pro-inflammatory status. These findings, which highlight the need for the developing randomized trials aimed at lowering cardiometabolic risk, warrant further investigation
- ItemExploring engagement with health apps: the emerging importance of situational involvement and individual characteristics(Emerald, 2021-05-06) Flaherty, Sarah Jane; McCarthy, Mary; Collins, Alan M.; McCafferty, Claire; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.Purpose: Health apps offer a potential approach to support healthier food behaviours but a lack of sufficient engagement may limit effectiveness. This study aims to use a user engagement theoretical lens to examine the factors that influence app engagement over time and may prompt disengagement. Design/methodology/approach: A phenomenological exploration of the lived experience was used. Women from a lower socioeconomic background (based on the occupation and employment status of the household’s primary income earner) were randomly assigned to use one of two apps for a minimum of eight weeks. Multiple data collection methods, including accompanied shops, researcher observations, interviews, participant reflective accounts and questionnaires, were used at different time-points to examine engagement. Theoretical thematic analysis was conducted to explore the engagement experience and relevant social, personal and environmental influences. Findings: Healthy food involvement appears to drive app engagement. Changes in situational involvement may contribute to fluctuation in engagement intensity over time as the saliency of personal goals change. Negatively valenced engagement dimensions may contribute to the overall expression of engagement. A lack of congruency with personal goals or an imbalance between perceived personal investment and value was expressed as the primary reasons for disengagement. Research limitations/implications: Situational involvement may act as a trigger of different engagement phases. There is a need to better distinguish between enduring and situational involvement in engagement research. Practical implications: Individual characteristics may shape engagement and propensity for disengagement, which highlights the practical importance of incorporating tailored features into app design. Originality/value: Findings broaden the current conceptualisation of engagement within the digital space and prompt a reconsideration of the role of situational involvement and negatively valenced dimensions throughout the engagement process.
- ItemHealthy eating habit: A role for goals, identity, and self-control?(Wiley, 2017-08-05) McCarthy, Mary; Collins, Alan M.; Flaherty, Sarah Jane; McCarthy, Sinéad N.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, IrelandSupporting healthier eating habits is crucial for improving population health outcomes. Underpinning everyday eating patterns are recurring actions that may lead to positive or negative health outcomes depending on the healthfulness of such actions. The aim of this research was to explore individual-level determinants of a healthy eating habit and consider to what extent personal goals and self-control are linked to a healthy eating habit. One thousand one hundred nine adults completed a survey focusing on a range of factors that potentially sway food choice behaviors. A structural model, developed based on a review of existing literature, was tested using self-reported healthy eating habit (Verplanken & Orbell, 2003 ) as the dependent variable. Analysis suggests that along with health-conscious identity and food hedonism, self-control was one of the strongest determinants of a healthy eating habit. Furthermore, while healthy eating goals had a direct significant effect, other goals, economizing and emotional, did not. However, all three goals along with food hedonism had a significant indirect effect that was mediated through self-control. In revealing the role of self-control, this work questions the underlying assumption of automaticity in a healthy eating habit. This leads to the questions: what is a healthy eating habit and to what extent can healthy eating behaviors ever be truly characterized as controlled by heuristics and automaticity? This analysis suggests that healthy eating is an ongoing behavioral project that requires the continued engagement of deliberative processes; thus habit within this context, and as measured using self-reported habit, may be a misnomer. The use of healthy eating routines, as opposed to habits, may be more appropriate to acknowledge the role of both automatic and deliberative processes with self-control being central in everyday decision making. Important practical and theoretical implications are discussed along with potential approaches for health and food sectors to support healthier eating behavior in the future.
- ItemOptimal central obesity measurement site for assessing cardiometabolic and type 2 diabetes risk in middle-aged adults(Public Library of Science, 2015) Millar, Sean R.; Perry, Ivan J.; Van den Broeck, Jan; Phillips, Catherine M.; Health Research BoardObjectives: Despite recommendations that central obesity assessment should be employed as a marker of cardiometabolic health, no consensus exists regarding measurement protocol. This study examined a range of anthropometric variables and their relationships with cardiometabolic features and type 2 diabetes in order to ascertain whether measurement site influences discriminatory accuracy. In particular, we compared waist circumference (WC) measured at two sites: (1) immediately below the lowest rib (WC rib) and (2) between the lowest rib and iliac crest (WC midway), which has been recommended by the World Health Organisation and International Diabetes Federation. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving a random sample of 2,002 men and women aged 46-73 years. Metabolic profiles and WC, hip circumference, pelvic width and body mass index (BMI) were determined. Correlation, logistic regression and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to evaluate obesity measurement relationships with metabolic risk phenotypes and type 2 diabetes. Results: WC rib measures displayed the strongest associations with non-optimal lipid and lipoprotein levels, high blood pressure, insulin resistance, impaired fasting glucose, a clustering of metabolic risk features and type 2 diabetes, in both genders. Rib-derived indices improved discrimination of type 2 diabetes by 3-7% compared to BMI and 2-6% compared toWC midway (in men) and 5-7% compared to BMI and 4-6% compared to WC midway (in women). A prediction model including BMI and central obesity displayed a significantly higher area under the curve for WC rib (0.78, P=0.003), Rib/height ratio (0.80, P<0.001), Rib/pelvis ratio (0.79, P<0.001), but not for WC midway (0.75, P=0.127), when compared to one with BMI alone (0.74). Conclusions: WC rib is easier to assess and our data suggest that it is a better method for determining obesity-related cardiometabolic risk than WC midway. The clinical utility of rib-derived indices, or alternative WC measurements, deserves further investigation.
- ItemA phenomenological exploration of change towards healthier food purchasing behaviour in women from a lower socioeconomic background using a health app(Elsevier, 2019-12-19) Flaherty, Sarah Jane; McCarthy, Mary; Collins, Alan M.; McCafferty, Claire; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.; Health Research BoardFood purchasing is dominated by routines and habits that may hamper the use of reflective decision-making and impede change. Disrupting existing behavioural patterns may address this challenge. Individuals from a lower socioeconomic background are more likely to report unhealthier purchasing and targeted initiatives are required. Health apps offer a potential approach although little evidence is available for this specific context. This research examines the individual's experience of changing food purchasing behaviour using an app focusing on women from a lower socioeconomic background. Multiple methods across different time-points explored the individual's experience over an 8–11 week period. An accompanied shop, incorporating think-aloud and researcher observations, was undertaken at baseline, followed by an in-depth interview and questionnaire. A reflective account of the individual's experience was recorded at four weeks and grocery receipts were shared for the duration. At follow-up, an accompanied shop, in-depth interview, and questionnaire were again used. Data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. The app appeared to disrupt existing behaviour by encouraging a more conscious approach to food purchasing. Self-monitoring, problem solving, and behavioural prompts were expressed as the most effective techniques. Due to the retail environment, self-control was necessary to create and maintain healthier behaviour. Individual higher-order goals appeared to influence behaviour change and the extent to which reflective cognition was employed. The role of retailers in directing behaviour was acknowledged but it appeared that change was still viewed as individual responsibility. In conclusion, apps may facilitate healthier purchasing via specific behaviour change techniques but personal and environmental factors may influence the change process. A range of strategies may be necessary to support sufficient and sustained change.
- ItemProtective lifestyle behaviours and lipoprotein particle subclass profiles in a middle-to older-aged population(Elsevier B.V., 2020-10-08) Millar, Seán R.; Harrington, Janas M.; Perry, Ivan J.; Phillips, Catherine M.; Health Research Board; Breakthrough Cancer Research, IrelandBackground and aims: Lipoprotein particle size is associated with increased atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease risk. Certain lifestyle behaviours may be cardioprotective. We examined lipoprotein particle size and concentration relationships with a protective lifestyle behaviour (PLB) score. Methods: This was a cross-sectional analysis of 2045 middle-to older-aged adults. Lipoprotein particle subclass size and concentrations were determined using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Five protective behaviours included never smoking, moderate alcohol intake, moderate to vigorous physical activity, a high-quality diet (upper 40% Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension score) and a normal body mass index (BMI) (18.5–24.9 kg/m2). Linear and logistic regression analyses tested individual protective behaviour and PLB score associations with lipoprotein subclasses. Results: Individual behaviour associations varied according to lipoprotein subclass, with normal BMI showing the greatest number of significant relationships. Logistic regression analyses revealed that subjects with the fewest number of protective behaviours had 1.4–2.8 increased odds of having less favourable lipoprotein profiles defined as above or below median level lipoprotein particle subclass size or concentration. Following additional adjustment for BMI, significant trend relationships were observed between the PLB score and large and medium very low-density lipoprotein (p = 0.001 and p < 0.001), total and smaller low-density lipoprotein (LDL) concentrations (p = 0.008 and p < 0.001), LDL size (p = 0.003) and a lipoprotein insulin resistance score (p = 0.003). Conclusions: Results show a cumulative protective effect of healthy lifestyle behaviours against an unfavourable potentially pro-atherogenic lipoprotein profile in middle-to older-aged adults, highlighting the importance of lifestyle promotion in healthy ageing.