Endovascular management of pelvic trauma
Ryan, David J.
McEntee, Mark F.
Maher, Michael M.
O'Connor, Owen J.
Traumatic pelvic injuries are an important group of acquired pathologies given their frequent association with significant vascular compromise. Potentially fatal as a consequence of rapid hemorrhage, achievement of early hemostasis is a priority; endovascular management of traumatic pelvic arterial injuries is an important potential option for treatment. Precipitated by any number of mechanisms of trauma, pelvic vascular injury necessitates timely patient assessment. Variable patterns of arterial injury may result from blunt, penetrating or iatrogenic trauma. Selection of the most appropriate imaging modality is a priority, ensuring streamlined access to treatment. In the case of CT, this is complemented by acquisition of the most appropriate phase of imaging; review of both arterial and delayed phase imaging improves the accuracy of detection of low-flow hemorrhage. In cases where surgical intervention is not deemed appropriate, endovascular treatment provides an alternative means for cessation of hemorrhage associated with pelvic injuries. This may be achieved in a selective or nonselective manner depending on the patient's clinical status and time constraints. Consequently, a detailed understanding of vascular anatomy is essential, including an appreciation of the normal variant anatomy between males and females. Additional consideration must be given to variant anatomy which may co-exist in both sexes. This review article aims to provide a synopsis of endovascular management of pelvic vascular injury. Through case examples, available treatment options will be discussed, including thrombin injection and transcatheter arterial embolization. Furthermore, potential adverse complications of pelvic arterial embolization will be highlighted. Finally, in view of the potential severity of these injuries, a brief overview of initial management of the hemodynamically unstable patient is provided.
Pelvic trauma , Vascular injury , Endovascular , Interventional radiology
Weir, A., Kennedy, P., Joyce, S., Ryan, D., Spence, L., McEntee, M., Maher, M. and O’Connor, O. (2021) ‘Endovascular management of pelvic trauma’, Annals of Translational Medicine, 9(14), (15 pp). doi: 10.21037/atm-20-4591